Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. bhedh-   'to flex, bend, crook'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend, Hook, Crook


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bēd n.neut bead, worship, supplication ASD
bedecian vb to beg CDC
biddan, bæd, bǣdon, beden vb.str.V to bid, request GED
cnēow-gebed n.str.neut bead (with bending of knees) GED
(ge)bed n bead W7
Middle English: bede n bead W7
bidden vb to bid, pray W7
English: bead n prayer AHD/W7
bid, bid, bade, bid(den) vb.str to urge, beseech, invite, entreat AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: bede n.str.fem bead GED
bidda vb.str to bid, request GED
Frisian: bidde vb to bid, ask ASD
Dutch: bede n bead CDC
bidden vb to bid, ask ASD
Old Saxon: beda n.str.fem bead GED
biddian, biddean vb.str to bid, request ASD/GED
gibed n bead CDC
kneo-beda n.str.fem bead (with bending of knees) GED
Old High German: beta n.str.fem bead GED
bidjan, bitten, bittan vb.str to bid, request ASD/CDC/GED
gabet n bead CDC
Middle High German: bete n bead CDC
bieten vb to bid CDC
bitten vb to bid, ask ASD
German: bieten vb to bid LRC
Bitte n.fem bead, request, supplication CDC
bitten vb to bid, ask CDC
Gebet n.neut bead CDC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: biðja vb.str to bid, request GED
knē-beðr n.str.masc pillow for knees (for prayer) GED
Icelandic: biðja vb to bid, ask CDC
Danish: bede vb to bid, ask ASD
Swedish: bedja vb to bid, ask ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: bida n.fem bead GED
bidagwa n beggar CDC
bid(j)an vb.str.V to bid, ask, pray, request GED
ga-bidjan vb.str.V to pray, request GED
us-bida I wish GED
Lithuanian: bãdas n hunger GED
Albanian: bashkë adv together LRC
bind vb to convince GED
Sanskrit: jñu-bā́dh- n.pfx bending the knees GED
bā́dhate vb to press, harass GED
bā́dhas n oppression GED
Tocharian B: peti n worship, adoration LRC
Tocharian A: poto n worship, adoration LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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