Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bheg-, bheng-   'to bang, break, smash'

Semantic Field(s): to Break


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bongid vb to break, reap RPN
Old English: banc n.fem bank CDC
benc n.fem bench ASD/W7
Middle English: bank(e), bonk(e), bonkke, banc n bank CDC/MEV/W7
benk, bynk, bench n bench CDC/W7
English: bang vb to bump, strike against AHD/W7
bank n hill, ridge; pile, mound AHD/W7
bank n bench for (galley) rowers AHD/W7
bank n money/finance business W7
Banks prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
banquet n great/ceremonious feast AHD/W7
banquette n raised way inside parapet/trench for gun(ner)s AHD/W7
bantling n very young child AHD/W7
bench n long seat for two/more persons AHD/W7
bhang n hemp, cannabis AHD/W7
bunco n swindling game/scheme AHD/W7
bungle vb to act/work awkwardly/clumsily AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: bank n.fem bank: bench ASD
bengel n bell CDC
bengelen vb to ring a bell CDC
Old Saxon: bank n.fem bank: bench ASD
benki n bench CDC
Low German: bangeln vb.freq to bang, beat, strike CDC
bangen vb to bang, beat, strike CDC
Old High German: banch, panch n.fem bench ASD/CDC
bank n bank: bench W7
Middle High German: banc, bank n bank: bench ASD/CDC
bengel n club CDC
German: bank n.fem bank: bench ASD/W7
bänkling n bastard W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: bakki n bank: bench W7
bang n a hammering CDC
bekkr n.masc bank: bench ASD
Icelandic: banga vb to bang, hammer W7
*banki n bank CDC
bekkr n bench CDC
Norwegian: bank n a beating CDC
banka vb to bang, beat CDC
Danish: bakke n bank: hill, hillock CDC
bank n a beating CDC
banke vb to bang, beat CDC
bænk n bank: bench CDC
bänk n bank: bench ASD
Old Swedish: bånga vb to bang, hammer CDC
Swedish: backe n bank: hill, hillock CDC
bång n a hammering CDC
bänk n bank: bench ASD
Middle Latin: bancus n.masc bank: bench CDC
Portuguese: banca n bench CDC
banco n bank: business CDC
Spanish: banca n.fem bank: bench W7
banco n bank: business CDC
banquete n banquet CDC
Old French: banc n bank: bench AHD
banquet n.dim banquet AHD
Middle French: banquet n.masc banquet W7
French: banc, banque n bank: bench CDC
banc n bank: business CDC
banquet n banquet CDC
banquette n.fem bench, banquette W7
Old Occitan: banc n bank: business CDC
banca n bank: bench CDC
Provençal: banca n bank: bench AHD
banqueta n.fem.dim small bench W7
Old Italian: banca n.fem bank: bench W7
banchetto n.masc banquet W7
Italian: banca n bank: bench CDC
banchetto n banquet CDC
banco n bank: business CDC
Armenian: bekanem vb to break RPN
Persian: bang n bhang CDC
Sanskrit: bhanákti vb to break, shatter RPN
bhangā n bhang CDC
Hindi: bhāṅg, bhung n bhang CDC/W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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