Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bheidh-   'to force; advise, confide, encourage'

Semantic Field(s): Strong, Mighty, Powerful, to Dare


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bibdu adj guilty GED
Irish: feithim vb to bide CDC
Gaelic: feith vb to bide CDC
Old English: ābīdan vb to abide W7/ASD
bædan vb.wk to request, compel GED
bāsn(i)an vb.wk to expect GED/ASD
bīdan, bād, bidon, biden vb.str.I to bide, wait, endure, remain GED
Middle English: abiden vb to abide W7
abod n abode W7
affiance n affiance W7
affien vb to trust, affy AHD
biden vb to bide W7
confederat adj confederate W7
confiden vb to confide W7
defyen vb to challenge, renounce faith in W7
feith n faith W7
feute n fealty W7
fidelite n fidelity W7
English: abide, abode vb.str/wk to await, wait for AHD/W7
abode n wait, delay AHD/W7
affiance n trust, confidence AHD/W7
affiant n one who swears to affidavit AHD/W7
affidavit n sworn statement in writing AHD/W7
affy vb to make affidavit AHD
bide vb to wait, tarry, continue in state/condition W7
confederate adj allied, united, in league AHD/W7
confidant n one with whom secrets are trusted AHD/W7
confide vb to trust, have confidence in AHD/W7
confident adj trustful, confiding AHD/W7
defiance n mistrust, suspicion; act of defying AHD/CDC
defy vb.trans to challenge to combat AHD/W7
diffident adj distrustful AHD/W7
faith n loyalty, allegiance to duty/person AHD/W7
fealty n fidelity of feudal tenant/vassal to his lord AHD/W7
federal adj re: compact/treaty AHD/W7
federate adj united in alliance/federation AHD/W7
federation n federal government W7
fiance n man who is engaged to be married AHD/W7
fideism n reliance on faith instead of reason AHD/W7
fidelity n faithful AHD/W7
fiducial adj taken as reference standard AHD/W7
fiduciary adj re: trust/confidence AHD/W7
infidel n one who is not Christian/opposes Christianity AHD/W7
perfidious adj re: perfidy W7
perfidy n treachery, faithlessness, disloyalty AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: bīda vb to bide CDC
bidia vb.str.I to bide GED
North Frisian: bida vb to bide, abide ASD
Dutch: beiden vb to bide CDC
Old Saxon: bēdian vb.wk to request, compel GED
bīdan vb.str.I to bide GED
Old High German: beit(t)en vb.wk to request, compel GED
bītan vb.str.I to bide, (a)wait GED
ga-peitian vb to constrain, compel, require ASD
Middle High German: bīten vb to bide CDC
German: beiten vb to bide CDC
Federation n.fem federation LRC
perfid adj perfidious LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: biða, biðað vb to bide, await LRC
Old Icelandic: beiða vb.wk to ask, request, compel GED
bīða vb to expect, endure GED
Danish: bie vb to bide CDC
Swedish: bida vb to bide CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *baidjan vb.wk.I to compel, morally constrain GED
*beidan vb.str.I to bide, await, have confidence in GED
*ga-beidan vb.str.I to endure GED
*us-beidan vb.str.I to expect GED
*us-beisns n.fem expectation GED
Latin: confido, confidere vb to trust completely W7
diffido, diffidere vb to distrust W7
fidelis adj faithful W7
fidelitas, fidelitatis n.fem faithfulness W7
fīdes, fīdeī n.fem trust, faith, credit, confidence GED
fīdo, fīdere vb to trust, believe GED
fiducia n.fem trust, confidence W7
fiduciarius adj having one's trust W7
foederātus adj/vb.ptc allied, confederate W7
foedus, foedēris n.neut league, treaty LRC
infidelis adj unfaithful W7
perfidia n.fem perfidy, faithlessness W7
perfidus adj faithless W7
Vulgar Latin: fīdo, fīdere vb to trust, promise, betroth W7
Late Latin: confoedero, confoederāre vb to unite in league W7
infidelis adj unbelieving W7
Medieval Latin: affido, affidare vb to pledge W7
Portuguese: fiel adj faithful TLL
Spanish: fiel adj faithful TLL
Old French: affiaunce n affiance AHD
affier vb to trust, promise AHD
defier vb to distrust, challenge, dare someone W7
fealte, feelte n.fem fealty W7
fiance n.fem promise, trust W7
fiancier adj trustful W7
fier vb to trust, entrust W7
foi n.fem trust, belief W7
Middle French: affiance n.fem affiance W7
affiant adj trusting W7
affier vb to trust, pledge W7
confider vb to confide W7
fiance n.masc fiance W7
fiancer vb to promise, betroth W7
fidelité n.fem fidelity, faithfulness W7
infidele adj pagan, unfaithful W7
French: confident n.masc confidant W7
fidéisme n.masc fideism W7
fidèle adj faithful TLL
Italian: confidente adj confident, trustworthy W7
fedele adj faithful TLL
Lithuanian: bėdà n trouble, misfortune RPN
Old Church Slavonic: běda n misery, hardship, necessity GED/RPN
běditi vb to compel, constrain GED/RPN
Russian: bedá n misfortune, trouble RPN
Albanian: be, bē n oath GED
Greek: πείθομαι vb to obey, be persuaded GED
πιστεύω vb to believe LRC
πίστις n.fem faith LRC
Sanskrit: bādhá-ḥ n hurt, damage, injury RPN
bādhate vb to press, trouble, be vexed RPN
bādhayate vb to vex, trouble, oppress RPN
bādhyate vb to suffer, be pressed RPN
Prakrit: bāhaï vb to hurt, prevent RPN
Pali: bādhati vb to hinder, oppress RPN
bādhita- vb.past.pass.ptc oppressed RPN
Oriya: bājibā vb.trans to hurt, cause pain RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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