Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. bhel-, bhlē-   'to grow, spread, swell, inflate'

Semantic Field(s): to Grow, to Stretch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ball n.masc penis, part of body GED
Old English: ballice adv defiantly, bravely GED
b(e)ald adj bold ASD/GED
b(e)aldor n.str.masc prince, master, lit. bolder GED
*beall n ball AHD
bealloc n.fem testicle GED
bealluc, beallucas n testicle(s) RPN
beldo, byldo n bield W2I
blǣd n.masc breath, blowing GED
blǣd(d)re n.fem bladder, blister, swelling ASD/W7
blǣs n.neut blowing GED
*blǣsan vb to blow, blaze CDC
blǣst n.str.masc blast, breath, blowing GED
blǣstan vb.wk to blast, blow GED
blāwan vb.wk to blow GED
blōtan vb.str to worship (with sacrifice) GED
blōtere n sacrificer GED
bolla n.wk.masc bowl, dish, vase GED
bula n bull W7
bulluc n.str.neut bull, bullock, breeding animal GED
byldan vb.wk to encourage GED
Middle English: bal, ball(e) n ball CDC/W7
bald(e), bold(e) adj bold CDC/MEV
bale n bale W7
baleine, bale(y)ne n whale, baleen CDC/W7
ballock, balluk, balok n ballock CDC/W7
baude n bawd CDC
bawde n bawdry W7
beeld, belde n bield W2I
blad(d)er, bled(d)er, bladdre n bladder CDC/W7
blasen vb to blaze W7
blast, blest n blast CDC/W7
blowen, blawen vb to blow CDC/W7
bole n bole W7
boll n boll W7
bolle n bowl W7
boulderston n boulder (stone) CDC
bule, bole n bull MEV/W7
bulk n bulk W7
flavor n flavor W7
folie n folly W7
fool n fool W7
fullen vb to full W7
English: afflatus n inspiration, divine imparting of knowledge/power AHD/W7
Balder prop.n comely but ill-fated son of Odin LRC
Baldor prop.n Rohan prince in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
bale n large bundle (of goods) AHD/W7
baleen n whalebone AHD/W7
ball n round(ish) body/mass AHD/W7
ballock n testis AHD/W7
balloon n nonporous air-filled bag made of light but tough material AHD/W7
ballot n small ball used for secret vote AHD/W7
ballottement n finger push on uterine wall to diagnose pregnancy AHD/W7
bawd n pander AHD/W7
bield n.obs boldness, courage, confidence W2I
bilberry n plant akin to blueberry AHD/W7
biltong n jerked meat AHD/W7
bladder n membranous sac in animal serving as liquid receptacle AHD/W7
blase adj sophisticated, jaded re: pleasure/excitement AHD/W7
blast n violent gust of air AHD/W7
blather n nonsense, foolishness LRC
blather vb.intrans to talk foolishly AHD/W7
blaze vb.trans to proclaim, make public/conspicuous AHD/W7
blow, blew, blown vb.str to move (air) with speed/force AHD/W7
bold adj intrepid, fearless before danger AHD/W7
bole n base/trunk of tree AHD/W7
boll n pod/capsule of plant AHD/W7
bollix vb.trans to throw into disorder AHD/W7
boulder n rounded detached much-worn rock mass AHD/W7
bowl n concave/hemispherical vessel for holding liquid AHD/W7
bulk n volume, magnitude AHD/W7
bull n adult male bovine animal AHD/W7
bullock n steer, castrated bull AHD
Bullroarer prop.n a.k.a. Bandobras Took in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
conflate vb to fuse, meld, combine, bring together AHD
deflate vb to lose/remove air AHD/CDC
flabellum n body part/organ resembling fan AHD/W7
flageolet n small flute resembling treble recorder AHD/W7
flatulent adj marked/affected by intestinal/stomach gases AHD/W7
flatus n gas generated in bowels/stomach AHD/W7
flavescent adj yellowish, turning yellow AHD
flavin n yellow water-soluble pigment AHD/W7
flavoprotein n enzyme containing flavin AHD
flavor n odor, fragrance AHD/W7
follicle n small anatomical cavity/deep narrow-mouthed depression AHD/W7
folly n lack of foresight/good sense/normal prudence AHD/W7
fool n one lacking in judgment/prudence AHD/W7
full vb.trans to shrink/thicken (woolen cloth) using moisture/heat/pressure AHD/W7
inflate vb to swell/distend with air/gas AHD/W7
insufflate vb.trans to blow on/into AHD/W7
isinglass n whitish, semi-transparent pure gelatin AHD/W7
ithyphallic adj re: phallus carried in ancient bacchic festival procession AHD/W7
phallus n (symbol/representation of) male sexual organ AHD/W7
phellem n nonliving water-resistant protective plant tissue AHD
phelloderm n tissue produced inwardly by cork cambium AHD
phellogen n secondary meristem initiating phellem/phelloderm in plant stem AHD/W7
rocambole n European leek AHD/W7
souffle n dish made of egg yolk or whipped egg whites AHD/W7
Scots English: blather, blether n bladder CDC
blether vb to blather CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: balde adv quickly ASD
blāu adj bluish GED
bolla n.masc bowl ASD
Old Dutch: blæder, blære n.fem bladder ASD
Middle Dutch: bale n bale ODE
bille n buttock AHD
blæder n bladder CDC
blæsen vb to blaze, sound trumpet CDC
blase n bladder W7
blāsen vb to blow W7
bolle n boll, round object AHD
huusblase n sturgeon bladder; isinglass W7
Dutch: baal n bale ODE
bal n ball, round bundle CDC
blaar n.fem bladder ASD
blaas n bladder TLL
blazen vb to blaze, blow, breathe, sound trumpet CDC
bol n.masc bowl ASD
boud adj bold CDC
huizenblas n isinglass W7
Afrikaans: bil n buttock W7
biltong n biltong W7
Old Flemish: bale n ball/bale, round bundle CDC
Flemish: bal n ball CDC
Old Saxon: bald adj bold, merry AHD/GED
beldian vb.wk to encourage GED
Middle Low German: bal n ball CDC
balde, bolde adv soon, quickly, at once CDC
bale n bale, round bundle CDC
blādere n bladder CDC
blāsen vb.str to blow, breathe, blaze CDC/GED
bulle n.str.neut bull, bullock, breeding animal GED
Low German: ball n ball CDC
bladere, bledder, blare n bladder CDC
Old High German: bald adj bold GED
balden vb.wk to encourage GED
baldī n.wk.fem bravery GED
balla, palla n.fem ball, bale CDC/GED
ballo n.wk.masc ball GED
blāen vb to blow W7
blāhan vb.str to blow CDC
blā(j)an vb.wk to blow ASD/GED
blāo adj bluish GED
blāsa n.fem bubble GED
blāsan vb.str to blow GED
blāsen vb to blow RPN
blāst n.str.masc blast, breath GED
blāt n.masc blowing GED
blātara, blattara, blātra n.fem bladder ASD/CDC/W7
blōzan, plo(az)zan vb.str to worship (with sacrifice) ASD/GED
bluostar n.str.neut offering GED
bluostrāri n.str.masc sacrificial priest GED
bolla n bowl CDC
bolla n blister W7
hirni-polla n skull, lit. brain-bowl ASD
ploz-hūs n.str.neut temple GED
Middle High German: bald adj bold CDC
balle n ball CDC
blæjen vb to blow ASD
blæwen vb to blow CDC
blāsen vb to blow, breathe, blaze CDC
blast n.masc blast (of air/wind), blowing, breeze ASD
blāter(e), blatter n.fem bladder ASD/CDC
blōdern vb to blather, chatter W7
bluoten vb to sacrifice ASD
bole n bole, thick plank CDC
bolle n bowl CDC
hirn-bolle n skull, lit. brain-bowl ASD
New High German: bille n.fem penis GED
bulle n.fem vulva GED
German: bald adv soon, quickly CDC
Ball n.masc ball CDC
Ballen n.masc bale, package CDC
bladdern vb.dial to blather CDC
blähen vb to blow ASD
Blase n.fem bladder, blister TLL
blasen vb to blow, breathe, blaze CDC
Blast n blast (of air/wind) CDC
Blatter n.fem bladder ASD
Bohle n.fem bole, thick plank CDC
Bolle n bulb W7
Bowle n.fem (punch) bowl CDC
Bulle n bull TLL
Rockenbolle n European leek W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: Baldr n.masc Balder: Norse god W7
ballr adj bold ASD
blaðra vb to blather, chatter W7
bolli n.masc bowl ASD
bolr n bole W7
bulki n cargo W7
böllr n ball, testicle W7
Old Icelandic: baldinn adj brave, defiant GED
Baldr prop.n Balder: Norse god GED
ballr adj bold GED
bella vb.wk to encourage GED
blār adj bluish GED
blāsa vb.str to blow GED
blāstr n.str.masc blast, breath GED
blōt n.neut sacrifice GED
blōta vb.str to worship (with sacrifice) GED
blōt-goð n.str.masc (heathen) priest GED
blǣr n.masc gust of wind GED
boli n.str.neut bull, bullock, breeding animal GED
bǫllr n.str.masc ball, testicle GED
her-baldr n.str.masc leader of army GED
Icelandic: ballr adj bold CDC
blaðr n blather CDC
blaðra n.fem bladder ASD
blaðra vb to blather CDC
blāsa vb to blow, breathe, blaze CDC
blāstr n.masc blast (of air/wind), breeze, blowing ASD
blōta vb to sacrifice ASD
bolli n bowl CDC
bolr, bulr n bole CDC
böllr n ball CDC
Norwegian: böllr n ball CDC
Old Danish: blothe vb to sacrifice ASD
bold adj bold CDC
Danish: bal n billiard ball CDC
balde n ball, testicle CDC
balle n bale CDC
blære n bladder ASD
blæse vb to blow, breathe, blaze CDC
blæst n blast (of air/wind) CDC
bold n ball CDC
bolle n bowl CDC
bul n bole, stump, log CDC
buldre vb to make loud noise CDC
bølle n whortleberry W7
Old Swedish: bol, bul n bole, body CDC
Swedish: bal n bale CDC
blota vb to sacrifice ASD
blæddra, bläddra n.fem bladder ASD/CDC
blåsa n bladder TLL
blåsa vb to blow, breathe, blaze CDC
blåst n blast (of air/wind) CDC
boll n ball CDC
buller n noise W7
bullersten n large stone in a stream W7
bål n bowl ASD
bål n bole, body CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: balþaba adv boldly, frankly GED
balþei n bield CDC
*balþs adj bold ASD
blēsan vb to blow, breathe, blaze CDC
*blostr n offering GED
blotan vb.str.VII to serve (God), honor (through sacrifice) GED
*uf-blesan vb.str.VII to boast, blaze, blow, puff up CDC/GED
Latin: afflo, afflāre, afflātus vb to blow on W7
balaena n.fem whale W7
flabellum n.neut fan W7
flātus n.masc wind, breath, blowing GED
flāvus adj golden yellow GED
flō, flāre vb to blow RPN
folliculus n.masc little bag; inflated ball; scrotum RPN
follis n.masc leather bag, bellows; scrotum RPN
fullō n.masc fuller W7
inflo, inflare, inflatus vb to inflate, blow in W7
phallus n.masc phallus W7
sufflō, sufflāre vb to blow, puff up W7
Vulgar Latin: flabeolum n.neut flute W7
flator n.masc flavor W7
fullo, fullāre vb to full W7
Late Latin: insufflo, insufflāre, insufflāvī, insufflātus vb to insufflate W7
Middle Latin: bal(l)a n ball, bale, package, round bundle CDC
palla, bala n ball, bale CDC
New Latin: flabellum n.neut body organ resembling fan W7
Portuguese: bala n ball, bale CDC
balãa n balloon CDC
Spanish: bala n ball, bale CDC
balon n football; large bale CDC
balota n ballot CDC
Old French: bald, baud, boud adj bold, gay, lively CDC
balene n baleen CDC
bal(l)e n ball, bale CDC
flajol n.masc small flute W7
flajolet n.masc small flute W7
fol adj fool, crazy W7
folie n.fem folly, craziness W7
Middle French: baloter vb to toss about W7
balotte n.fem little ball W7
flaor n.fem flavor W7
flatulent adj passing gas W7
flavor n.fem flavor W7
fouler vb to trample W7
French: baleine n baleen CDC
balle n ball, bale CDC
ballon n.masc balloon; large football; rounded glass for fine alcohols W7
bal(l)otte n ballot CDC
ballottement n.masc shaking, rolling motion W7
ballotter vb to toss around W7
blasé adj blase W7
bol n bowl CDC
flageolet n.masc flageolet; haricot bean W7
rocambolesque adj extravagant, re: story of extraordinary adventures W7
souffle n.masc breath, light wind W7
souffler, soufflē vb to blow, puff up W7
Old Occitan: bala n ball, bale CDC
Italian: balla n.fem bale CDC
ballone n.masc large football W7
ballotta n.fem ballot ball; boiled chestnut CID/W7
balod adj bold, gay CDC
palla n ball CDC
pallone n balloon, football CDC
Lithuanian: bulė n buttocks GED
bulìs n buttocks GED
Greek: ithyphallikos adj with phallus erect W7
ithyphallos n.masc erect phallus W7
φάλης n penis GED
phallaina n.fem whale, sea monster W7
φαλλός n penis GED
phellos n.masc cork W7
φληνέω vb to be talkative GED
Armenian: bl-roy n.gen hill GED
bolor adj round GED
Sanskrit: bulis n.fem vulva, buttocks GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at