Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. bhel-, and bhlē-, bhlō-, bhlə-   'leaf, foil, blade; bloom'

Semantic Field(s): Leaf, Flower


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bláth n flower RPN
Old English: blǣd n.masc breath, life, spirit LRC
blǣd n.neut blade LRC
blēd n.fem stalk, fruit, flower ASD/RPN
blēdan vb to bleed ASD/W7
blētsian, bletsi(g)an, blēdsian vb to bless ASD/CDC/W7
blōd n.str.neut blood GED
blōma n.masc bloom, lump of metal ASD/W7
blōstm(a), blōsma, blōsþma n.masc blossom ASD/CDC/W7
blōt n.neut blood, sacrifice ASD
blōt-mōnaþ n.masc November, lit. blood-month (of sacrifice) ASD
blōwan vb to blow W7
cerfille, cærfille, cyrfille n.fem chervil ASD/W7
Northumbrian: bloedsia, bl(o)etsia vb to bless ASD
Middle English: blad(e), bladde n blade CDC/W7
blede n fruit, blossom CDC
bleden vb to bleed W7
bless(i)en, blescen, bletsien vb to bless CDC/W7
blom n bloom: flower, perfection MEV
blome n bloom: lump of metal W7
blood(e), blod(e), bl(o)ud n blood CDC/MEV/W7
blossome, blossum, blos(t)me n blossom CDC/W7
blowen vb to blow W7
cherville n chervil W7
deflouren vb to deflower W7
emblayment n emblements W7
florin n florin W7
florisshen vb to flourish W7
flour n flour, flower, best of anything W7
flourette n floret W7
foil n foil W7
folio n folio W7
milfoil n yarrow W7
trefoil n clover W7
English: blade n leaf AHD/W7
bleed, bled vb.str to lose/emit blood AHD/W7
bless, blest vb.wk.trans to hallow/consecrate by religious rite/word AHD/W7
blood n fluid circulating in veins/arteries of vertebrates AHD/W7
bloom n flower AHD/W7
bloom n wrought iron mass from forge/puddling furnace AHD/W7
bloom vb to yield/produce flowers W7
Blooting prop.n Bree calendar's November in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
blossom n flower of seed plant AHD/W7
blossom vb to bloom W7
Blotmath, Blodmath, Blommath prop.n Shire calendar's November in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
blow, blew, blown vb.str.intrans to flower, blossom AHD/W7
cauliflower n garden plant AHD/W7
chervil n aromatic herb AHD/W7
cinquefoil n plant of rose family having 5-lobed leaves AHD/W7
deflower vb.trans to ravish, deprive of virginity AHD/W7
defoliate vb.trans to deprive of leaves AHD/W7
effloresce vb.intrans to bloom, burst forth AHD/W7
emblements n crops, from cultivation, legally belonging to tenant AHD/W7
enfleurage n extraction of perfume from flowers AHD/W7
exfoliate vb to cast off scales/splinters/laminae AHD/W7
ferret n narrow cotton/silk/wool tape AHD/W7
feuilleton n part of European newspaper/magazine devoted to general interests AHD/W7
Flora prop.n goddess of flowers (Roman mythology) AHD/W7
flora n plants, plant life W2I
floral adj re: flora/flowers AHD/W7
floret n small flower AHD/W7
floriated adj having floral form/ornaments AHD/W7
florid adj covered with flowers AHD/W7
florigen n hormone/agent that promotes flowering AHD/W7
florin n gold coin struck in Florence AHD/W7
florist n one who sells flowers AHD/W7
-florous adj.sfx having/bearing flowers AHD/W7
flour n finely ground wheat meal AHD/W7
flourish vb to thrive, grow luxuriantly AHD/W7
flower n blossom, inflorescence AHD/W7
foil n plant leaf AHD/W7
foliage n mass of plant leaves AHD/W7
folio n leaf, esp. of book/manuscript AHD/W7
folium n thin layer in metamorphic rocks AHD/W7
kingsfoil n healing herb in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
milfoil n yarrow: Eurasian composite herb AHD/W7
millefleur n background of (lit. 1000) small plants/flowers AHD
perfoliate adj having basal part united around stem AHD/W7
-phyll n.sfx leaf AHD/W7
-phyllous adj.sfx having leaves/leaflets/leaf-like parts AHD/W7
podophyllin n bitter resin from May apple root AHD
portfolio n portable case for papers/drawings AHD/W7
trefoil n clover AHD/W7
Scots English: bluid, blude n blood CDC
blume n bloom CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: blæm, blam n bloom CDC
bled n blade CDC
blēda vb to bleed CDC
blōd n.str.neut blood GED
blōia vb to blow: bloom CDC
Frisian: bloed n.neut blood ASD
bloeyen vb to blow: bloom ASD
North Frisian: blomme n bloom CDC
blot, blöt n.neut blood ASD
blöye vb to blow: bloom ASD
Old Dutch: bloed n.neut blood ASD
blosem n blossom ASD
Middle Dutch: bloeme n bloom CDC
Dutch: blad n blade CDC
bloed n.neut blood ASD
bloeden vb to bleed ASD
bloeijen vb to blow ASD
bloem n.fem bloom CDC
bloesem n.masc blossom ASD
kervel n.fem chervil ASD
Old Saxon: blad n blade CDC
blōd n.str.neut blood GED
blōjan vb to blow: bloom ASD
blōmo n bloom CDC
Middle Low German: blat n blade CDC
blōme n bloom CDC
blos(s)em n blossom CDC
blōt n fruit, blossom CDC
blöt n blood CDC
Low German: blad n blade CDC
blood n blood CDC
Old High German: blāt n blast, blowing ASD
blat n blade W7
bluoen vb to bloom W7
bluojan, bluo(ha)n vb to blow: bloom ASD
bluoma n.fem bloom CDC
bluomo n.masc bloom CDC
bluot n fruit, blossom CDC
bluot n.str.neut blood GED
bluotan vb to bleed ASD
kervila, kerfola n.fem chervil ASD/W7
Middle High German: blat n blade CDC
bloust n blossom CDC
bluome n.masc/fem bloom CDC
bluon, blü(ej)en vb to blow: bloom ASD
bluot n fruit, blossom CDC
bluot n.neut blood ASD
kërvele n.fem chervil ASD
German: Blatt n blade CDC
blühen vb to blow: bloom ASD
Blume n.fem bloom CDC
Blut n.neut blood ASD
Blüte n flower CDC
bluten vb to bleed ASD
Kerbel n.masc chervil ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: blóm n.neut bloom LRC
Old Icelandic: blōð n.str.neut blood GED
Icelandic: blað n blade CDC
blessa, ble(t)za vb to bless ASD
blōð n.neut blood ASD
blōm n.neut bloom CDC
blōmi n.masc bloom CDC
blōmstr n.masc blossom ASD
blōt n.neut sacrifice ASD
blæða vb to bleed CDC
kerfill n.masc chervil ASD
Danish: blod n.neut blood ASD
blomme n bloom CDC
blomst n flower CDC
blöde vb to bleed ASD
kiörvel n.masc/fem chervil ASD
Swedish: blad n blade CDC
blod n.neut blood ASD
blomma n.fem bloom CDC
blomster n.neut blossom ASD
blöda vb to bleed ASD
kyrfvel n.masc chervil ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: bleiþs adj kind, merciful ASD
bleiþyan vb to have mercy ASD
blōma n bloom RPN
bloþ n.neut blood GED/IEW
Crimean Gothic: *blut, plut n.neut blood CGo/GED
Latin: caerefolium n.neut chervil ASD
effloresco, efflorescere vb to effloresce W7
floreo, florēre vb to blossom, flourish W7
flōrēscō, flōrēscere vb to blossom, begin to flourish W7
floridus adj blooming, flowery W7
flōs, flōris n.masc flower, blossom RPN
foliatus, foliata, foliatum vb.ptc having leaves W7
folio n.neut.abl in leaves W7
folium n.neut leaf W7
millefolium n.neut milfoil W7
quinquefolium n.neut with five leaves W7
trifolium n.neut with three leaves W7
Vulgar Latin: florio, florīre vb to bloom W7
Late Latin: defloro, deflorāre vb to deflower W7
defolio, defoliāre, defoliātus vb to defoliate W7
exfolio, exfoliāre, exfoliātus vb to exfoliate, strip of leaves W7
-florus sfx flowering, blossoming W7
New Latin: Flora n.fem Flora W7
flora flora, plants of a region W7
folium n.neut leaf, page of a manuscript W7
perfoliata n.fem herb having leaves pierced by stem W7
-phyllum sfx leaf W7
-phyllus sfx having leaf-like parts W7
Portuguese: fôlha n foil TLL
Spanish: hoja n foil TLL
Old French: flor n.fem flower W7
flour n.fem flower W7
foil n.masc foil W7
foillet n.masc.dim small foil W7
milfoil n.fem milfoil W7
Middle French: blee n grain W7
cincfoille n.masc cinquefoil W7
deflorer vb to deflower W7
emblaement n.masc space sown with grain W7
emblaer vb to sow with grain W7
fleur n.fem flower W7
florin n.masc florin W7
florir, florissé vb to flourish W7
flour n.fem flower W7
flouret n.fem.dim small flower W7
foille n.fem foil W7
fuellage n.masc foliage W7
passefleur n.fem pasqueflower W7
trefeuil n.masc clover W7
French: blé n grain, wheat LRC
chèvrefeuille n.masc honeysuckle, lit. goatleaf LRC
feuille n.masc foil TLL
feuillet n.masc leaflet, sheet of paper W7
feuilleton n.masc soap; feuilleton W7
mille-fleur(s) n millefleur AHD
Old Italian: fiore n.fem flower W7
fiorino n.masc florin W7
Italian: cabolfiore n.masc cauliflower W7
cavolo n.masc cabbage W7
fiore n.masc flower W7
fioretto, fioretti n.masc little flower W7
foglia n foil TLL
portafòglio n.masc wallet, portfolio W7
portare vb to carry W7
Greek: φύλλον n.neut leaf RPN
-phyllos afx leaf, leaves W7
Sanskrit: phal vb to burst, blossom ASD
Tocharian B: pilta n leaf RPN
Tocharian A: pält n leaf RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
abl=ablative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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