Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bheleg-   'to shine, glisten'

Semantic Field(s): to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bǣl n flame, funeral pyre ASD/W7
blāc, blǣc adj bleak, white, shining CDC/W7
blācern, blǣcern n lantern RPN
blæc adj/n black; ink CDC/W7
blǣc(e)an vb to bleach CDC/W7
*blanc, blanca n poetic white/gray horse CDC
blencan vb to blink W7
blīcan vb to shine ODE
Middle English: blak, blac adj black MEV/W7
blake, bloke adj bleak, white, shining CDC/ODE
blanch, blank adj blank CDC
blanke, blonke adj blank CDC
blanket, blonket n blanket CDC/W7
bla(u)nche adj blanched CDC
bla(u)nchen vb to blanch CDC/W7
blechen vb to bleach W7
blek(e) adj bleak; black CDC/W7
blenchen, blinchen vb to blench CDC/W7
blenken vb to blink W2I
blīkan vb to shine CDC
enflamen vb to inflame W7
flaum(b)e n flame W7
fleume n phlegm W7
fulgent adj fulgent W7
fulminaten vb to fulminate W7
English: black adj extremely dark AHD/W7
blacken vb to darken, make black LRC
Blackroot prop.n vale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
blacksmith n one who shapes/forges iron with hammer/anvil AHD
blanch vb to whiten, remove color AHD/W7
blank adj white, colorless AHD/W7
blanket n woven fabric used as bed covering AHD/W7
bleach vb to remove color/stains AHD/W7
bleak adj.obs/dial wan, pale, pallid, without color AHD/W2I
bleak vb.obs to bleach W2I
blench vb.intrans to flinch/draw back/turn aside due to lack of courage AHD/W7
blink vb to deceive (obs.); twinkle; look/glance/glimpse ODE/W2I
conflagrant adj blazing, burning AHD/W7
conflagration n fire AHD/W7
deflagrate vb to burn with sudden/sparkling combustion AHD/W7
flagrant adj glowing, flaming AHD/W7
flambé vb to drench with liquor and ignite AHD
flambeau n flaming torch AHD/W7
flamboyant adj having wavy curves suggesting flames AHD/W7
flame n glowing gaseous part of fire AHD/W7
flamingo n aquatic bird with long neck/legs AHD/W7
flammable adj subject to easy ignition/rapid burning AHD/W7
fulgent adj dazzlingly bright AHD/W7
fulgurate vb.trans to emit (lightning) flashes AHD/W7
fulminate vb to utter/send out with denunciation AHD/W7
inflame vb to kindle, set on fire AHD/W7
Phlegethon prop.n river of fire in Hades (Greek mythology) LRC
phlegm n one of 4 humors in early physiology AHD/W7
phlegmatic adj re: phlegm AHD
phlogiston n former hypothetical principle of fire (as material substance) AHD/W7
phlox n American annual/perennial herb with variously coloured flowers AHD/W7
Scots English: blonk adj blank CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: blīka vb to shine CDC
Middle Dutch: blinken vb to blink; shine, glitter ODE
Vlaminc n Fleming W7
Dutch: blaken vb to burn, scorch, blacken CDC
blakeren vb to scorch, blacken CDC
blank adj blank, shining CDC
blecken vb to bleach CDC
bleek adj bleak CDC
blijken vb to look, appear ODE
blinken vb to blink; shine W2I
vlam n flame TLL
Old Saxon: blēk adj bleak, white, shining ODE
blīkan vb to shine CDC
Middle Low German: black n ink CDC
blaken vb to blacken, burn with much smoke CDC
blank adj blank, shining CDC
blēk adj bleak CDC
Low German: black n ink CDC
blek adj bleak CDC
verblekken vb to scorch, blacken CDC
Old High German: bla(c)h adj black CDC/W7
blanch adj blank, white W7
bleichēn vb to bleach CDC
bleih adj bleak, white, shining ODE
blīhhan vb to shine CDC
Middle High German: black n ink CDC
blanc adj blank, shining, bright CDC
bleich adj bleak CDC
bleichen vb to bleach CDC
blīcan vb to grow bleak CDC
German: blaken vb to blacken, burn with much smoke CDC
blank adj blank, bright, shining CDC
blanko adj blank, plain LRC
bleich adj bleak CDC
bleichen vb to bleach, grow bleak CDC
blinken vb to blink; shine, flash, twinkle W2I
Flamme n.fem flame LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: bleikr adj bleak, white, shining ODE
blekkja vb to impose on W7
blika, blíkja vb to shine, gleam, twinkle ODE
Icelandic: blakkr adj black ASD
blakkr n poetic horse/steed CDC
bleikja vb to bleach CDC
bleikr adj bleak CDC
blek n ink CDC
blekkja vb to deceive CDC
*blincan vb to blink; twinkle CDC
blīk(j)a vb to shine CDC
Danish: blak adj black, dark CDC
blank adj blank, shining CDC
bleg adj bleak CDC
blege vb to bleach CDC
blinke vb to blink, wink; twinkle ODE
blæk n ink CDC
flamme n flame TLL
Swedish: black adj black, dark, grayish CDC
blank adj blank, shining CDC
blek adj bleak CDC
bleka vb to bleach CDC
blinka vb to blink, wink; twinkle ODE
bläck n ink CDC
flamma n flame TLL
Latin: conflagrans, conflagrantis adj/vb.ptc burning W7
conflagratio, conflagrationis n.fem a burning together W7
conflagro, conflagrare, conflagratus vb to burn W7
deflagro, deflagrare, deflagratus vb to burn down W7
flagrans, flagrantis adj/vb.ptc burning, glowing W7
flagro, flagrare vb to burn, glow W7
flamma n.fem flame W7
flammo, flammare vb to flame, set on fire W7
flammula n.fem little flame W7
fulgens, fulgentis adj/vb.ptc shining W7
fulgeo, fulgēre vb to shine W7
fulgur, fulgor n.neut lightning W7
fulguro, fulgurare, fulguratus vb to flash with lightning W7
fulmen, fulminis n.neut lightning, a thunderbolt W7
fulmino, fulmināre, fulminātus vb to flash/strike with lightning W7
inflammo, inflammare vb to ignite W7
Phlegethon n.masc Phlegethon W7
phlox n.fem flower W7
Middle Latin: blancus adj blank CDC
blanketus, blanchetus n blanket CDC
New Latin: phlox n.masc genus of flowers W7
Portuguese: branco adj blank CDC
chama n flame TLL
Spanish: blanco adj blank CDC
flamenco n.masc a Spanish dance W7
llama n flame TLL
Old French: blanc(he) adj blank W7
blanchir vb to blanch, make white CDC
blanket n blanket CDC
blankete n.fem blanket W7
flambe n.fem flame W7
flamber vb to flame AHD
flamble n.fem flame W7
flamboyer vb to flame W7
Middle French: enflamer vb to inflame W7
flambeau n.masc torch W7
flamme, flambe n.fem flame W7
French: blanchet n blanket CDC
blanchir vb to blanch CDC
flambeau n.masc torch W7
flamboyant adj re: flame W7
flamboyer vb to flame, be ablaze W7
flamme n.fem flame W7
Old Occitan: blanc adj blank CDC
Italian: bianco adj blank CDC
fiamma n flame TLL
Old Church Slavonic: blagъ adj good RPN
Greek: Phlegethōn prop.n.masc Phlegethon W7
phlegein vb to burn W7
phlegma n.neut flame, inflammation, phlegm W7
φλέγω vb to burn, blaze RPN
phlogizein vb to set on fire W7
phlogistos, phlogiston adj inflammable W7
phlox, phlogos n.fem flame W7
Sanskrit: bhárgas- n splendor, radiance RPN
bhrāj vb to shine CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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