PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes
Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
Pokorny Etymon: bheleu- 'to hit, weaken; ill, weak'
|Old English:||bealo, b(e)alu||n||bale, injury||RPN/ASD|
|Middle English:||balw(e), baluw||n||bale||CDC|
|ba(y)le, bayll||n||bale, torment, mysery||W7/MEV|
|English:||bale||n||great evil; woe, sorrow||AHD/W7|
|baleful||adj||deadly/pernicious in influence||W7|
|Old High German:||balo||n||bale, destruction||RPN|
|Old Icelandic:||böl||n||bale, misfortune||RPN|
|balwjan||vb||to plague, torment||RPN|
|Lithuanian:||blúkšti||vb||to become weak||RPN|
|Old Slavic:||bolŭ||n||sick man||W7|
|Old Church Slavonic:||bolěti||vb||to be sick||RPN|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|AHD||=||Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)|
|ASD||=||Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)|
|CDC||=||W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)|
|MEV||=||J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)|
|RPN||=||Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)|
|W7||=||Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)|