Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhen-   'to hit, wound'

Semantic Field(s): to Hit, Strike, Beat, to Harm, Injure, Damage


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bana, bona n.wk.masc bane ASD
ben(n) n.fem wound ASD/CDC
Middle English: bane n bane W7
English: autobahn n (German) espressway AHD/W7
bane n killer, slayer, murderer AHD/W7
Mansbane prop.n a.k.a. Felarof in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: bona n bane ASD
Old Saxon: bano n bane CDC
Old High German: bano n bane; death W7
Middle High German: ban(e) n way, path LRC
German: Autobahn n.fem expressway W7
Bahn n.fem way, track, road W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: bani n.masc bane; (cause of) death LRC
Old Icelandic: ben(i) n bane; wound LRC
Icelandic: bani n bane CDC
ben n wound CDC
Danish: bane n death, murder CDC
Swedish: bane n death, murder CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: banja n blow, wound LRC
Homeric Greek: θάνᾰτος n.fem death LS
θείνω vb to strike, wound RPN
Avestan: banta adj ill W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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