Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhelg̑h-   'to swell, bulge, billow'

Semantic Field(s): to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bolg n.masc sack GED/IEW
bolgaim vb to swell GED
Middle Irish: bolg n.masc bag, belly, stomach IED/W7
Irish: bolg n bag, belly RPN
Welsh: bol n sack, belly GED
bola n sack, belly GED
boly n sack, belly GED
Gaulish: bolg- n bag, belly LRC
bulga n leather sack GED
Old English: bæl(i)g, bielg n.str.masc bulge, (leather) bag ASD/W7
belgan vb.str.III to swell up, be angry GED
belgas bellows MEV
bel(i)g, byl(i)g, bilig n.str.masc bulge, bag ASD/GED
bolster n.masc bolster ASD/CDC
Middle English: bellewys bellows MEV
below, bel(o)wes n bellow(s) CDC/W7
bely, beli n belly CDC/W7
bolster, bolstre n bolster CDC/W7
bowgette n budget W7
*bylge n billow CDC
English: bellows n tool/machine to expand/contract, drawing in/expelling air AHD/W7
belly n stomach, abdomen AHD/W7
billow n wave AHD/W7
billow vb to surge, swell, rise/roll in billows OED
blagging n conversation, informal talk AHD
Bolger prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
bolster n long pillow/cushion extending full width of bed AHD/W7
Budgeford prop.n hobbit town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
budget n (leather) pack/pouch/wallet AHD/W7
bulge n lowest area in ship's inner hull AHD/W7
bulge vb to swell, jut out W7
Scots English: bowster n bolster CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: balga n skin, belly CDC
ovir-bulgen vb.past.ptc enraged GED
Old Dutch: bolghe, bulghe n bulge, bag CDC
Dutch: balg n.masc bulge, bag ASD
blaasbalg n.masc bellows CDC
bolster n bolster CDC
Old Saxon: balg n.str.masc bulge, bag GED
belgan vb.str.III to swell up, be angry GED
Low German: bulge n bulge, billow CDC
Old High German: balg n.str.masc bulge, bag, skin GED
belgan vb.str.III to swell up, be angry GED
blasbalg n bellows CDC
bolstar n bolster CDC
bulga n.fem bulge, bag, leather sack GED
Middle High German: balc n.masc bulge, bag ASD
bolster n bolster CDC
bulge n bag, billow CDC
German: Balg n.masc bag ASD
Blasebalg n.masc bellows CDC
Polster n.neut bolster CDC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: belgr n.masc bulge, bag ASD
bylgja n bag W7
Old Icelandic: belgja vb.wk to cause to swell GED
belgr n.str.masc bag, belly, flayed animal skin GED
bolginn vb.past.ptc swollen GED
Icelandic: belgr n.masc bag CDC
blāstrbelgr n.masc bellows CDC
bōlstr n bolster CDC
bylgia n billow CDC
Danish: blæsebælg n.masc bellows CDC
bolster n bed-ticking CDC
bælg n.masc bulge, bag ASD
bölge n billow CDC
Swedish: blåsbalg n bellows CDC
bolster n bed CDC
bölja n billow CDC
bälg n skin, case, belly CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *balgs n.masc skin, leather bag GED
ufbauljan vb to billow, puff up CDC
Middle French: bougette n.fem leather bag W7
bou(l)ge n.masc leather bag W7
Old Prussian: balsinis n pillow GED
po-balso n bolster GED
Latvian: pa-bàlsts n.masc pillow for the head GED/IEW
Serbo-Croatian: blàzina n pillow, bolster GED
Slovenian: blazína n feather-bed GED
Avestan: barəziš n.neut pillow GED/IEW
Sanskrit: upa-barhaṇam n cover, bolster GED
upa-bárhanī n.fem cover, bolster GED/IEW
barhíṣ n.neut sacrificial straw GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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