Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhendh-   'to tie, bind'

Semantic Field(s): to Bind


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bann n bond, hinge, law RPN
Old English: bend, bænd n band: fetter W7/ASD
bendan vb.wk to bind; bend, stretch RPN
bindan, bond, bundon, bunden vb.str.III to bind, tie LRC
bund n bundle RPN
byndel n bundle W7
gebind n.neut band, binding, fastening LRC
wudubinde n woodbine W7
Middle English: band n band: bond W7
bande n band: strip W7
bend n bend W7
benden vb to bend LRC
binden vb to bind W7
bond n bond W7
bundel n bundle W7
riban n ribbon W7
wodebinde n woodbine W7
English: band n strip, belt, cord AHD/W7
band n bond allowing some movement AHD/W7
bandanna n large figured handkerchief AHD/W7
bend, bent vb.wk to flex, curve, strain to tension W7
bend n diagonal band AHD/W7
bind, bound vb.str to secure by tying AHD/W7
bindlestiff n tramp with bundled possessions AHD
bond n fetter, thing that binds/restrains AHD/W7
bund n embankment used to control water flow AHD/W7
bund n political association AHD/W7
bundle n items fastened together for handling convenience AHD/W7
cummerbund n broad sash worn as waistband AHD/W7
ribbon n narrow flat/tubular woven fabric for trimming/knitting AHD/W7
woodbine n honeysuckle AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: band n band CDC
bende n bend, bond CDC
binda vb to bind, tie ASD
Frisian: bynnen vb to bind, tie ASD
Old Dutch: bende n bend, bond CDC
Dutch: band n band CDC
bind n.neut joint, crossbeam CDC
binden vb to bind, tie ASD
Old Saxon: band n band CDC
bendi n bend, bond CDC
bindan vb to bind, tie ASD
Old High German: bant n band W7
binda, binta n bend, tie, fillet, cravat RPN
bintan vb to bind RPN
Middle High German: bant n band CDC
binde n bend, tie, fillet, cravat CDC
binden, benden vb to bind, tie, fetter ASD
bunt n band: cord; league, coalition W7
German: Band n.neut band CDC
Binde n.fem band, tie, fillet, cravat CDC
binden vb to bind, tie ASD
Bund n.masc band: cord; league, coalition W7
Bündel n.masc bundle LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: band n band: cord; coaltion W7
Old Icelandic: benda n band, tie RPN
benda vb to bend RPN
bendi n band: cord RPN
binda vb to bind, tie, fasten RPN
Icelandic: band n band CDC
benda vb to bend CDC
binda vb to bind CDC
Danish: baand n band, tie CDC
bind n.neut band, tie CDC
binde vb to bind, tie ASD
bænde vb to bend CDC
Swedish: band n band CDC
binda vb to bind, tie ASD
bända vb to bend CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: bandi n band: bond RPN
bindan vb to bind RPN
ga-binda, ga-bindi n band, tie ASD
Middle Latin: benda, binda n bend CDC
Portuguese: banda n band: strip CDC
bandanna n bandanna AHD
venda n bend CDC
vender vb to bind; hoodwink CDC
Spanish: banda n.fem band: strip CDC
venda n bend CDC
vender vb to bind; hoodwink CDC
Old French: bande n band: strip CDC
bende n bend CDC
bender vb to bend, bind, tie CDC
Middle French: bande n.fem band: strip; troop W7
riban n.masc ribbon W7
ruban n.masc ribbon W7
French: bande n band: strip CDC
bander vb to bend, bind, tie CDC
Old Occitan: benda n bend CDC
bendar vb to bind; hoodwink CDC
Italian: banda n band: strip CDC
benda n bend CDC
bendare vb to bind; hoodwink CDC
Lithuanian: beñdras n.masc friend, participant LRC
Greek: πεῖσμα n.neut rope, cable LRC
φάτνη n.fem manger LRC
Persian: band n band: bond W7
kamarband n sash W7
Avestan: bandayaiti vb to bind LRC
Sanskrit: baddhá-ḥ adj bound, tied, fastened RPN
badhnā́ti vb to bind LRC
bandhá-ḥ n bond, knot, chain RPN
bandhayati vb to cause to bind RPN
bándhu-ḥ n connection, relation RPN
bandhura-ḥ adj bent, curved RPN
bandhnāti vb to bind, tie, fasten RPN
Hindi: kamarband n sash W7
band n embankement along river W7
bā̃dhnā vb to tie W7
bā̃dhnū n dyeing cloth tied in knots W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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