Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bher-   'to bear, bring, carry'

Semantic Field(s): to Bear, Carry, to Bring


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: biru, berid vb to bear GED/RPN
Irish: brith n birth CDC
Gaelic: bréith n birth CDC
Welsh: hebrwng vb to accompany W7
Old English: ān-boren adj only-born, only-begotten ASD
bǣr n.fem bier ASD/W7
bearm n.masc lap, bosom LRC
bearn n.neut bairn LRC
be(o)ran, bær, bǣron, boren vb.str.IV to bear, suffer, give birth ASD/RPN
be(o)rþor, borþor, byrþor n childbirth ASD/RPN
*berewe, bearwe n barrow CDC/W7
*berewe n barrow CDC
byre n birr, storm, strong wind RPN
byre n.str.masc son GED
byrðen, berðen, byrðyn n.fem burden ASD/W7
forberan vb.str to forbear ASD/W7
gebyrd n birth CDC
gebyrd-dæg n.str.masc birthday CDC
offrian vb.wk to offer ASD/W7
un-baren, un-boren adj unborn ASD/GED
Middle English: barew, bar(e)we n barrow CDC/W7
barm n lap MEV
barn(e), bern n bairn MEV/W7
bar(r)ow, barowe n barrow CDC
be(e)re, beer n bier CDC/W7
bere-bag n bag-bearer (pejorative re: Scots) MEV
beren vb to bear W7
bir(r), byr(re), bur(re) n birr, following wind CDC/MEV/W7
birthdai, bitheday n birthday CDC
birth(e), berth n birth CDC/W7
bore n wave W7
born adj born W7
burde, burthe n birth CDC
burden, byrthen n burden MEV/W7
byrde, byrth(e) n birth CDC
circumference n circumference W7
deferren, differren vb to defer W7
differen vb to differ W7
ferret n ferret W7
fertile adj fertile W7
forberen vb to forbear W7
fortune n fortune W7
furet n ferret W7
offren vb to offer W7
preferren vb to prefer W7
profren vb to proffer W7
referren vb to refer W7
suffren vb to suffer W7
transferren vb to transfer W7
English: afferent adj bearing/conducting inward AHD/W7
amphora n jar/vase with large oval body/narrow neck/two handles AHD/W7
anaphora n repetition for rhetorical/poetic effect AHD/W7
Anborn prop.n Ithilien ranger in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
bairn n child, baby W7
barrow n handcart, wheelbarrow AHD/W7
bear, bore, born(e) vb.str to carry: support and move AHD/W7
bier n framework for carrying AHD/W7
birr n force, onward rush (e.g. of wind) AHD/W7
birth n emergence of new individual from body of mother AHD/W7
birthday n day/anniversary of one's birth W7
bore n tidal flood with high abrupt front AHD/W7
born adj brought into existence by birth W7
burden n load, something carried AHD/W7
burly adj strong, heavy, muscular AHD
circumference n perimeter of circle AHD/W7
confer vb to compare AHD/W7
defer vb to refer for decision AHD/W7
defer vb.trans to delay, put off AHD/W7
diaphoresis n perspiration AHD/W7
differ vb.intrans to be unlike/distinct in form/nature/characteristics AHD/W7
efferent adj conducting outward from AHD/W7
euphoria n feeling of elation/well-being AHD/W7
Fairbairn prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
-fer n.pfx one/thing that bears AHD/W7
feretory n reliquary, receptacle for saints' relics AHD
ferret n partially domesticated often albino European polecat AHD/W7
fertile adj producing/bearing fruit in large quantity AHD/W7
Firstborn prop.n the Elves in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
forbear, forbore, forborne vb.str to endure, bear with AHD/W7
fortuitous adj occurring by chance AHD/W7
fortune n hypothetical force/personified power determining events/issues AHD/W7
furtive adj surreptitious, done by stealth AHD/W7
furuncle n boil, local skin swelling/infection AHD/W7
furunculosis n condition involving multiple furuncles AHD
infer vb to derive as conclusion from facts/premises AHD/W7
metaphor n word/phrase used instead of another to suggest likeness/analogy AHD/W7
offer vb to sacrifice, present as act of worship/devotion AHD/W7
ommatophore n movable stalk ending with (snail) eye AHD
opprobrium n something that brings disgrace AHD/W7
paraphernalia n property controlled by married woman AHD/W7
periphery n perimeter of circle/other closed curve AHD/W7
pheromone n chemical secreted by animal to influence others AHD
-phore n.pfx carrier AHD/W7
-phoresis n.pfx transmission AHD/W7
phosphorus n phosphorescent substance/body AHD/W7
prefer vb.trans to promote/advance to rank/position AHD/W7
proffer vb to offer, tender, present for acceptance AHD/W7
refer vb to regard/classify/think of within general group/category AHD/W7
suffer vb to submit to, be forced to endure AHD/W7
telpher n light car suspended from/running on aerial cables AHD/W7
tocopherol n oily fat-soluble phenolic compound AHD/W7
transfer vb to transport, convey to another person/place/situation AHD/W7
unborn adj not (yet) born W7
vociferate vb to clamor, cry out loudly AHD/W7
Scots English: bairn n child, baby W7
bir, be(i)r, bere, bur(r) n birr CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: barm-bracco n lap-dog ASD
bera vb to bear GED
berd, berth n birth CDC
berde, berthe n.fem burden ASD
bēre n.fem bier ASD
bern n.neut bairn ASD
offria vb to offer ASD
Dutch: baar n.fem bier ASD
baren vb to bear CDC
berrie n barrow CDC
emmer n bucket TLL
geboorte n birth CDC
Old Saxon: bāra n.fem bier ASD
barm n.masc lap, bosom ASD
barn n.neut bairn ASD
beran vb to bear GED
burðinnia n.fem burden ASD
giburt n birth CDC
Old Low German: offron vb to offer ASD
Old High German: bāra n.fem bier ASD
barm n.masc lap, bosom ASD
barn n.neut bairn ASD/W7
beran vb to bear GED
burdi n.fem burden ASD
eimbar n jug, bucket, vessel KDW
giburt n birth CDC
opfarōn vb to offer ASD
Middle High German: bar n.masc bairn: son; man GED
bāre n.fem bier ASD
bere n barrow CDC
bürde n.fem burden ASD
burren vb to rush, roar, whir RPN
geburt n birth CDC
rade-ber n wheelbarrow CDC
German: Bahre n.fem bier ASD
Bürde n.fem burden ASD
Eimer n bucket TLL
Geburt n.fem birth CDC
Geburtstag n.masc birthday LRC
Radberge, Radbürge n wheelbarrow CDC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: baðmr n.masc tree LRC
barn n.neut bairn LRC
bāra n wave W7
bera vb to bear, give birth, endure LRC
borr, burr n.masc bairn: son ASD
burðr n.masc birth LRC
byrðr n.fem load, burden LRC
byrr n birr, favoring wind W7
Old Icelandic: barmr n.masc lap, bosom ASD
bera vb to bear GED
burr n.str.masc son GED
ū-borinn adj unborn GED
Icelandic: barar, börur n bier CDC
barmr n.masc lap, bosom ASD
barn n.neut bairn ASD
bera vb to bear CDC
*byrðr, burðr n birth CDC
byrðr, byrðl n.fem burden ASD
byrr n birr CDC
offra vb to offer ASD
Danish: baar(e) n bier ASD/CDC
bare vb to bear CDC
barn n.neut bairn ASD
byrd n birth CDC
byrde n.fem burden ASD
bör n birr CDC
Old Swedish: byrþ n birth CDC
Swedish: barn n.neut bairn ASD
bör n birr CDC
börd n birth CDC
börda n.fem burden ASD
bår n bier, barrow CDC
bära vb to bear CDC
ämbar n bucket TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: baíran vb.str.IV to bear, give birth LRC
bairan vb to bear, carry, endure, give birth GED
barms n.masc lap, bosom ASD
barn n.str.neut bairn LRC
barniskei n.wk.fem childish thing LRC
*baur n.masc bairn, son, one born GED/RPN
baurþei n.fem burden ASD
fra-bairan vb to endure ASD
gabaurþs n birth CDC
un-baurans adj unborn ASD
Crimean Gothic: *baarn, baar n bairn: boy, son CGo
Latin: adferō, adferre vb to bring/carry to ELD/W7
afferens, afferentis adj/vb.ptc consequent, that comes with W7
amphora n.fem amphora W7
auferō, auferre vb to bear off, carry away ELD
circumferentia n.fem circumference W7
circumfero, circumferre vb to carry around W7
confero, conferre vb to bring together W7
defero, deferre vb to bring (down) W7
differo, differre vb to be different, go in another direction W7
differro, differre vb to postpone, be different W7
effero, efferre vb to elevate, carry out W7
-fer sfx which brings/produces W7
feretrum n bier, litter CDC
ferō, ferre vb to bear, carry, give birth GED
fertilis adj fertile W7
fors, fortis n.fem luck, chance, fortune W7
fortuitus adj random W7
fortuna, fortunae n.fem chance, fortune LRC
fur n.masc thief W7
furō, furere n to rage, be furious RPN
furo n.masc thief, ferret W7
furtivus adj furtive, secret, concealed W7
furtum n.neut theft W7
fūrunculus n.masc.dim furuncle, sucker; pilferer, petty thief ELD/W7
infer adj the lowest W7
infero, inferre vb to bring/carry in/into W7
metaphora n.fem metaphor W7
offero, offerre vb to offer, present W7
opprobrium n.neut opprobrium W7
opprobro, opprobrare vb to reproach W7
praefero, praeferre vb to prefer, put in front W7
probrum n.neut reproach W7
refero, referre vb to refer, report, bring back W7
suffero, sufferre vb to suffer, bring under W7
tranfero, transferre vb to carry through W7
vōciferor, vōciferari, vōciferatus vb.dep to vociferate W7
Vulgar Latin: furittus n.masc.dim little thief W7
sufferio, sufferire vb to suffer W7
Late Latin: anaphora n.fem anaphora, figure of style W7
diaphoresis n.fem dissipation by perspiration W7
peripheria n.fem periphery W7
Medieval Latin: paraphernalia private property of married woman W7
New Latin: euphoria n.fem joy, euphoria W7
-phoresis sfx act of carrying W7
-phorus sfx bearing W7
phosphorus n.masc phosphorus W7
Portuguese: furão n ferret TLL
Spanish: hurón n ferret TLL
Old French: biere n bier AHD
offrir vb to offer W7
poroffrir vb to offer W7
souffrir vb to suffer W7
Anglo-French: profrer vb to offer, present W7
Middle French: circumference n.fem circumference W7
deferer, defferer vb to bring down to someone W7
differer vb to postpone, be different W7
fertile adj fertile W7
fortune n.fem chance, fortune W7
furet n.masc ferret W7
inferer vb to infer W7
metaphore n.fem metaphor W7
périphérie n.fem periphery W7
préférer vb to prefer W7
French: bière n bier CDC
efférent adj to be carried outward W7
-fère adj.sfx (production) W7
furet n ferret TLL
furtif adj furtive W7
furtive adj.fem furtive W7
offrir vb to offer W7
Old Occitan: bera n bier CDC
Italian: furetto n ferret TLL
Lithuanian: beriù vb to strew, pour out GED
bérnas n son, boy RPN
Latvian: bērns n.masc bairn LRC
bẽrt vb to strew, pour out GED
Old Church Slavonic: berǫ, beru vb to bear GED
burja n storm RPN
sъborъ n.masc counsel, meeting LRC
Albanian: bie vb to bring GED
bir n son GED/RPN
burrë n man RPN
Mycenaean: pere vb to bear GED
Homeric Greek: φέρτε carry! GED
φέρω vb to bear, bring, endure LRC
Greek: amphiphoreus n.masc amphora W7
amphoreus n.masc amphora W7
anapherein vb to refer, carry back W7
anaphora n.fem act of carrying back, reference W7
diaphorein vb to dissipate by perspiration W7
diaphorēsis n.fem diaphoresis W7
euphoria n.fem vigour W7
euphoros adj healthy, vigorous W7
théretron n bier, litter CDC
metapherein vb to transfer W7
metaphora n.fem metaphor W7
parapherna goods a bride brings over/above dowry W7
periphereia n.fem periphery W7
φέρειν vb to bear, carry, endure, give birth GED
phernē n.fem dowry W7
phorein vb to carry, wear W7
phoreus n.masc bearer W7
phorēsis n.fem act of carrying W7
-phoros sfx carrying W7
φορτίον n load, burden, child in womb RPN
φῡ́ρω vb to mix RPN
phōsphoros adj light-bearing W7
Late Greek: anaphora n.fem anaphora, figure of style W7
Classical Armenian: bari adj good LRC
Armenian: berem vb to bear GED/RPN
buṙn n violence RPN
Old Persian: barantiy they bear GED
Avestan: baraiti vb to bear GED
Vedic: bhárti vb to bear GED
Sanskrit: bíbharti vb to bear GED
bhárati vb to bear, suffer, give birth GED/RPN
bháriman- adj/n supporting; family RPN
bhuráti vb to stir, move rapidly RPN
bhurváṇi-ḥ adj restless, excited RPN
bhṛtá-ḥ vb.pass.past.ptc borne, brought, carried RPN
bhri vb to bear ASD
bhriti n birth CDC
bhriyáte vb.pass to be borne RPN
Tocharian: pär- vb to bear GED
Tocharian A: pärtär bears GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
imp=imperative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)
2=2nd person
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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