Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bheredh-, bhṛdho-   'to cut; board'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut, Board


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: bord n.masc board ASD
Gaelic: bord n board CDC
Cornish: bord n.fem board ASD
Welsh: bord, bwrdh n board ASD
Old English: bord n.str.neut board; shield, table; ship's side GED
bred n.str.neut board GED/RPN
fōt-bred n.neut stirrup, lit. foot-board GED
stēor-bord n starboard, lit. steer(ing)-board W7
Middle English: bord(e), boord n board; table; ship's side CDC/MEV/W7
bordel n bordel W7
bord(e)ure, border n border CDC/W7
sterbord n starboard W7
English: board n plank, piece of sawed lumber; edge, border AHD/W7
bordel n brothel W7
bordello n bordel AHD/W7
border n outer part/edge/boundary AHD/W7
border vb to create/lie on border W7
forficate adj forked, branched, bifurcate AHD
smorgasbord n luncheon/dinner buffet offering variety of foods AHD/W7
starboard n right side of ship (looking forward) AHD/W7
Scots English: bordour n border CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: bord n.str.neut board GED/RPN
Frisian: bo(e)rd n.masc board ASD
Old Dutch: bred n.neut board ASD
Middle Dutch: bert n.str.neut board GED
Dutch: berd n.neut board ASD
bo(o)rd n.masc board ASD
stuur-boord n starboard, lit. steer(ing)-board ASD
Old Saxon: bord n.str.masc board GED/RPN
bred n.str.neut board GED/RPN
Middle Low German: bort n.str.neut board; table GED
bret n.str.neut board GED
Low German: boord n board CDC
Old High German: bort(i), borto n.str.masc board; ship's side ASD/W7
bret n.str.neut board, plank GED/RPN
britir n.fem lattice GED
Middle High German: bort n board ASD
brët n.neut board ASD
German: Bord n board ASD
Bordüre n.fem border LRC
Bret(t) n.neut board ASD
Pritsche n.fem iron/plank bed GED
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: borð n.str.neut board, plank GED/RPN
fōt-borð n.str.neut lit. foot-board GED
Icelandic: borð n.neut board ASD
stjórn-borði n starboard, lit. steer(ing)-board ASD
Danish: bord n.neut board ASD
brædt n board CDC
styr-bord n starboard ASD
Swedish: bord n.masc board; table ASD/W7
bräde n board CDC
smörgåsbord n large mixed hors d'oeuvre SEO/W7
styr-bord n starboard ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: baurd n.neut board CDC
fotu-baurd n.neut footstool, lit. foot-board GED
Latin: forfex, forficis n.fem shears, scissors AHD
Middle Latin: bordatura n edge, border CDC
bordus n board ASD
Portuguese: borda n edge, side, border CDC
bordadura n border CDC
bordar vb to edge, border CDC
bordo n board CDC
Old Spanish: borda n board CDC
Spanish: bordadura n border CDC
bordar vb to edge, border CDC
bordo n.masc board ASD
Old French: borde n.masc hut W7
bordel n.masc bordel W7
border vb to border W7
bord(e)ure n.fem border CDC/W7
Middle French: bordel n bordel W7
French: bord n.masc board ASD
border vb to edge, border CDC
bordure n border CDC
Provençal: bordadura n border CDC
bordar vb to edge, border CDC
Italian: bordare vb to edge, border CDC
bordatura n border CDC
bordello n.masc bordello; uproar CID/W7
bordo n.masc board ASD
Greek: πέρθω vb to sack, destroy GED
Sanskrit: bardhaka n.masc/adj carpenter; cut off RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SEO=Norstedts Stora Svensk-Engelska Ordbok, 3rd ed. (2000)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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