Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhereg̑h-, bherg̑hos-   'high, noble; barrow, mountain'

Semantic Field(s): High, Noble, Nobleman, Hill, Mountain


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: borg, brog, brugh n castle RPN
brigh n barrow CDC
brī, brig n.fem brae GED
Irish: bri n barrow CDC
Breton: bre n barrow CDC
Cornish: bre n brae LRC
Welsh: bera n heap GED
bre n brae, barrow CDC
Gaulish: Berg- prop.n Berg- GED
Brig-antes prop.n Brigantes GED
Brig-antia prop.n Bregenz GED
Old English: beorg, beorh n.masc barrow LRC
beorgan vb to cover, protect CDC
biorg, biorh n.masc barrow ASD
bre(o)go, bregu, brega n.masc lord, prince, king, ruler ASD
burg, bur(u)h n borough, fortified place/town/city CDC/RPN
mund-beorh n.masc sheltering-hill ASD
Middle English: berfreid, belfray n belfry CDC
berfrey, belfry n belfry W7
bergh, berw, ber(u)z, beoruh n barrow CDC/W7
borwe, borowe, boruz, buruh n borough CDC
bourg, bor(u)gh n bourg MEV/W7
bra n brae W7
burgeis n burgess, bourgeois W7
burgh n borough W7
comforten vb to comfort W7
deforcen vb to deforce W7
enforcen vb to enforce W7
fabour n faubourg W7
force n force W7
fortalice n fortalice W7
forte n fort W7
forteresse n fortress W7
fortifien vb to fortify W7
fortitude n fortitude W7
English: barrow n hill, mountain; mound, tumulus AHD/W7
Barrow-downs prop.n Shire area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Barrowfield prop.n Rohan cemetery in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Barrow-wight prop.n tomb-wraith in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
belfry n siege tower AHD/W2I
borough n fortified group of houses forming town AHD/W7
bourg n town, village AHD/W7
bourgeois n burgher AHD/W7
brae n hill, hillside, highland W7
Bree prop.n hillside town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Bree-land prop.n highland area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Brego prop.n 2nd Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
burg n borough, walled bourg, (ancient) fortress W7
burgess n burgher, citizen of British borough AHD/W7
burgher n town/borough inhabitant W7
burglar n thief, one who commits burglary AHD/W7
burgomaster n mayor, chief magistrate of town AHD/W7
comfort vb.trans to cheer, give strength/hope to AHD/W7
deforce vb.trans to keep (lands) by force from rightful owner AHD/W7
Dwimorberg prop.n haunted mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
effort n conscious exertion of power AHD/W7
enforce vb.trans to strengthen, give force to AHD/W7
faubourg n suburb AHD/W7
force n strength/energy exerted/brought to bear AHD/W7
fort n strong/fortified place AHD/W7
fortalice n fortress AHD/W7
forte adj/adv loud(ly), powerful(ly) AHD/W7
forte n one's strong point AHD/W7
fortify vb to make strong AHD/W7
fortis adj produced with strong expiration/articulatory tenseness AHD/W7
fortissimo adv very loud AHD/W7
fortitude n strength AHD/W7
fortress n stronghold, fortified place AHD/W7
Hornburg prop.n Rohan fortress in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
iceberg n large floating ice mass detached from glacier AHD/W7
inselberg n isolated mountain AHD/W2I
Mundberg, Mundburg prop.n a.k.a. Minas Tirith in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Norbury prop.n town a.k.a. Fornost in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
reinforce vb.trans to strengthen, give more force/effectiveness to AHD
Tuckborough prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: berch, birg n.str.masc barrow ASD/GED
berg n barrow CDC
bur(i)ch n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
Middle Dutch: bergfert, bergfrede n protecting shelter CDC
burch, borch n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
Dutch: berg n barrow CDC
burg n burg, castle, fortified place W7
burgemeester n burgomaster W7
herberg n inn TLL
schouwburg n theater TLL
Old Saxon: berg n.str.masc barrow GED
bur(u)g n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
Middle Low German: borch n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
Old High German: berg n.str.masc barrow GED
bergan vb to cover, protect CDC
bur(u)g, bur(u)c n burg, bourg, castle, fortified place CDC/RPN
perac n barrow ASD
Middle High German: berc n barrow ASD
bercfrit, bercvrit n belfry CDC
berchfrit, berhfride n belfry CDC
bergen vb to cover, protect CDC
burc n burg, bourg, castle, fortified place CDC
German: Berg n.masc barrow ASD
bergen vb to cover, protect CDC
Brieg prop.n Brieg GED
Burg n.fem burg, castle, fortified place LRC
Bürger n.masc burgher LRC
Fort n.neut fort LRC
Gebirge n.neut.coll mountains, mountain range TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: berg n.neut barrow ASD
Old Icelandic: berg n.str.masc rock, barrow GED
bjarg n.str.masc rock, barrow GED
Icelandic: berg, bjarg n rock, precipice CDC
borg n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
bragr n.masc prince, leader ASD
Norwegian: berg n barrow W7
isberg n iceberg W7
Danish: bjærg n.neut barrow ASD
borg n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
Swedish: berg n.neut barrow ASD
borg n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *bairgahei n.fem mountainous area GED
bairgan vb to cover, protect CDC
*bairgs n barrow RPN
baurgs n.str.fem burg, tower, fortified place GED
baurgs-waddjus n.masc city wall KGW
Latin: burgus n.masc burg, bourg W7
fortis, fortis adj fortified LRC
fortitudo, fortitudinis n.fem fortitude W7
Vulgar Latin: fortia n.fem strength W7
Late Latin: conforto, confortāre vb to strengthen greatly W7
fortifico, fortificāre vb to fortify W7
Middle Latin: ber(e)fredus, berefridus n belfry CDC
burgus n burg, bourg, castle, fortified place CDC
Medieval Latin: burgator n.masc burglar W7
burglator n.masc burglar W7
burgo, burgare, burgatus vb to commit burglary W7
fortalitia n.fem strength W7
Portuguese: burgo n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
fôrça n force TLL
forte adj strong, forte TLL
Spanish: burgo n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
fuerte adj strong, forte TLL
fuerza n force TLL
Old French: berfrai, berfray, berefreit n belfry CDC
berfroi, belefroi n belfry CDC
borc n.masc bourg W7
borg, burc n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
borjois n.masc burgess W7
burgeis n bourgeois CDC
conforter vb to console, stengthen W7
deforcier vb to force, compel W7
enforcier vb to make stronger W7
esforcier vb to force W7
esfort n.masc effort W7
force n.fem force; scissors, cutters W7
forcier vb to force W7
fors adv outside W7
forsborc n.masc faubourg W7
Old North French: belfroi n belfry AHD
Anglo-French: burgler n.masc burglar W7
Middle French: berfrei n.masc bell-tower W7
bourg n.masc bourg W7
bourgeois n.masc town-dweller W7
effort n.masc effort W7
enforcier vb to enforce W7
force n.fem force W7
forsbourg, fauxbourg n.masc faubourg, suburbs W7
fort adj strong W7
forteresce n.fem fortress W7
fortifier vb to fortify W7
French: beffroi n belfry, watchtower, bell tower CDC
bourg n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
bourgeois n bourgeois CDC
force n.fem force LRC
fort adj strong, forte TLL
Provençal: borc n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
Italian: battifredo n belfry CDC
borgo n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
forte adj strong, forte W7
fortissimo adj.sup strongest W7
forza n force TLL
Polish: brzeg n bank, shore CDC
Czech: breh n bank, shore CDC
Serbian: brijeg n bank, shore CDC
Old Church Slavonic: brěgъ n bank, cliff GED
Russian: beregŭ n bank, shore CDC
Greek: πύργος n tower RPN
Hittite: parkatar n height GED
párkuš adj high GED
Armenian: barjr adj high GED
-berj n height GED
erkna-berj adj sky-high GED
Avestan: barəzah- n height GED
berezanh n height, barrow CDC
bərəz(ant)- adj high, great, lofty GED
Sanskrit: bṛhánt- adj high, tall, great, strong RPN
brihant adj strong, mighty, lofty CDC
brih, barh vb to be thick/strong CDC
Tocharian B: pärk- vb to rise (sun) RPN
Tocharian A: pärk-, park- vb to rise (sun) RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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