Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. bherem-   'to hum, buzz, drone'

Semantic Field(s): Sound (n)

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: bremman vb to roar, resound RPN
English: brontosaur n large quadrupedal herbivorous dinosaur AHD/W7
fremitus n vibration felt by hand on chest during speech AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Frisian: brimje, brimme vb to roar ASD
Dutch: brommen vb to roar ASD
Old High German: breman vb to growl, mutter RPN
Middle High German: brimmen vb to roar ASD
German: brummen vb to roar ASD
Italic  
Latin: fremitus, frremitūs n.masc murmur W7
fremō, fremere vb to roar, growl, groan RPN
Slavic  
Russian: brjacát' vb to clang, clank RPN
Hellenic  
Greek: bremein vb to roar W7
brontē n.fem thunder W7
φόρμιγξ n type of lyre/harp RPN
Indic  
Sanskrit: bhramará-ḥ n bee RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next


  •   Map
  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712
    512-471-4566