Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bherem-   'to stand out; brim, edge, hem'

Semantic Field(s): Edge


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: brēm(b)el, brǣmbel, brēmber n.masc bramble ASD/W7
brōm n broom W7
brȳmme n.masc brim, brink, border ASD
Middle English: brembel, brem(m)bil n bramble CDC/W7
brimme, brymme n brim, brink, water's edge MEV/W7
broom n broom W7
English: berm n narrow shelf/ledge/path AHD/W7
bramble n prickly shrubs AHD/W7
brim n rim/edge of cup/bowl/depression AHD/W7
broom n leguminous shrub AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: berme n berm CDC
br(a)eme n bramble CDC
Dutch: berm n berm, ground alongside dike W7
braam n.masc bramble ASD
braam-bēzie n.fem blackberry ASD
brem n.fem broom ASD
Middle Low German: berme n berm CDC
Low German: braam n broom, bramble CDC
brummel n bramble CDC
Old High German: brāmo, brāma n.masc bramble ASD/CDC/W7
Middle High German: brāme n bramble CDC
brem n brim W7
German: Berme n berm CDC
Bram n.masc broom CDC
Bräme n.fem edge, border; hedge, bramble LRC
Brombeere n.fem blackberry ASD
Swiss German: Bramen n bramble CDC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: barmr n brim, edge, border of sea/river CDC
Old Danish: bremble, brymle n bramble CDC
Danish: brambær n.neut blackberry ASD
Swedish: brombär n.masc blackberry ASD
Middle French: brimme n.fem brim W7
French: berme n.fem berm R1/W7
Russian: berma n berm CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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