Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bh(e)reu- : bh(e)rū̆-   'to brew, boil, surge, be wild'

Semantic Field(s): to Boil (intrans, Wave, Surge, Rage, Fury


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: berbaid vb to cook GED
bruth n fermentation GED
tipra n.fem source, fountain GED
Middle Irish: berbaim vb to boil RPN
Old Welsh: brwd n fermentation GED
Old English: bærnan vb.wk to burn, kindle, set afire GED
beornan, bi(e)rnan, byrnan vb.str to burn, blaze, be on fire GED
brāde n roasted meat CDC
brǣd n flesh W7
brǣdan, brēdan vb to roast, broil ASD/GED
brand, brond n.str.masc brand, blaze; sword ASD/GED
brēad, brēod n.str.neut bread; bit, morsel, fragment ASD/GED
brēdan vb to breed W7
brennian vb.wk to cause to burn GED
brēowan vb.str to brew, prepare through fermentation GED
brinnan, bearn, burnon, bornen vb to burn RPN
brōd n.str.fem brood GED
broð n.neut broth ASD/GED
brunna n.wk.masc burn; fount, spring, source GED
bryn-stān n.masc brimstone MEV
burn n.str.fem burn ODE
burna, burne n.wk.masc/fem burn; fount, spring, source ASD/GED
byrne n.str.masc fire, flame GED
Middle English: birnen vb to burn W7
brand, brond n brand, blaze; sword CDC/W7
braundisshen, braundis(h)en vb to brandish CDC/W7
brawn, braun n brawn CDC/W7
bred-corn n lit. bread-grain MEV
breden vb to breed W7
breed, bred(e) n bread MEV/W7
brended adj brindled AHD
brewen vb to brew W7
brewes n broth W7
brinston, brynstane n brimstone MEV/W7
broilen vb to broil AHD
brood n brood W7
broth n broth W7
burn, borne n burn MEV/W7
English: blaff n West Indian fish/pork stew AHD
bourn(e) n burn AHD/W7
braciola n thin slice of meat (wrapped around stuffing) AHD
braise vb.trans to slowly cook with fat in closed pot AHD/W7
Brand prop.n Dale king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
brand n torch, charred/burning wood AHD/GED/W7
brandade n salted cod dish AHD
brandish vb.trans to shake/wave (weapon) menacingly AHD/W7
brandy n brandywine AHD/W7
Brandybuck prop.n hobbit clan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Brandywine prop.n Shire river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
brandywine n alcoholic liquor distilled from peach wine AHD/W7
bratwurst n small fried pork sausage AHD
brawn n full strong muscles of arm/leg AHD/W7
braze vb to solder with infusible alloy AHD/W7
brazier n pan to hold burning coals AHD/W7
bread n baked food: flour/meal mixed with liquid/shortening/leavening AHD/W7
breed, bred vb.str to reproduce (offspring) by hatching/gestation AHD/W7
bresaola n dried sliced salt-cured beef AHD
brew n beverage made by brewing AHD
brew vb to prepare by infusion/steeping/boiling/fermentation AHD/W7
brewis n broth AHD/W7
brimstone n sulfur AHD/W7
brindled adj tawny/grayish with darker spots/streaks AHD
broil n brawl, rowdy argument AHD
broil vb.obs to brawl, engage in rowdy argument AHD
brood n (family of) animal young AHD/W7
broth n stock, liquid in which fish/meat/vegetables/cereal grains were cooked AHD/W7
burn, burnt vb.wk to blaze, set afire AHD/W7
burn n brook, stream, rivulet AHD/W7
embroil vb.trans to throw into disorder/confusion AHD/W7
Erkenbrand prop.n Westfold master in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
fornicate adj having arched/vaulted form AHD/W7
fornicate vb.trans to have sexual intercourse while unmarried AHD/W7
fornix n anatomical arch/foldfold AHD/W7
Herubrand prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
imbroglio n confused mass AHD/W7
phreatic adj subterranean, re: ground water AHD
sauerbraten n marinated roasted beef AHD/W7
Snowbourn prop.n Rohan river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Upbourn prop.n Rohan village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
waybread n bread for journey in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: barna, berna vb.str to burn GED
brād n.str.neut bread GED
brand, brond n.str.masc brand, blaze; sword GED
brēda vb to roast, broil GED
burna n.wk.masc burn; fount, source GED
Frisian: brān n brand; sword ASD
briede vb to roast ASD
Old Dutch: bernen vb to burn ASD
brand n brand, blaze; sword CDC
Middle Dutch: borne n burn ODE
brant adj distilled W7
brantwijn n brandywine W7
bro n bread GED
broeijen vb.wk to brood, warm GED
Dutch: born, bron n.fem bourn ASD
braden vb to roast, broil ASD
brand n.masc brand, fire ASD
branden vb to burn ASD
brandewijn n brandywine W7
brand(t)wijn n brandywine CDC
broed n.str.neut brood GED
brood n bread TLL
brouwen vb.str to brew GED
gebroed n.neut brood ASD
Old Saxon: brādon vb to roast GED
brinnan, brennan vb.str to burn ASD/GED
brōd n.str.neut bread GED
brunno n.wk.masc burn; fount, source GED
Middle Low German: born(e) n burn ODE
brannewīn n brandywine CDC
brant n.str.masc brand, blaze GED
brōien vb.wk to burn, scorch GED
brōt n bread CDC
Low German: brood n bread CDC
Old High German: brant n.str.masc brand, blaze; sword GED
brātan vb to roast, broil GED
brāto n piece of flesh CDC
brennen vb.wk to cause to burn GED
brinnan, brennan, prennan vb.str to burn ASD/GED
briuwan vb.str to brew GED/RPN
brod, brōd n.neut broth ASD/W7
brōt n.str.neut bread GED
brunno n.wk.masc burn; fount, source GED
brunst n.str.fem blaze, heat GED
prod n broth GED
Middle High German: brant n.masc brand, fire ASD
brantweīn n brandywine CDC
brāte n roasted meat CDC
brāten vb to roast ASD
brennen vb to burn ASD
briuwen vb to brew ASD
brod n.neut broth ASD
brōt n bread CDC
brüeje n.fem brew, broth GED
brü(ej)en vb.wk to brew; singe, burn, scorch GED
brunne, burne n.masc bourn ASD
bruot n.str.fem brood GED
Early New High German: aus-brüen vb.wk to hatch GED
German: Born n.masc bourn ASD
Brand n.masc brand, fire ASD
Branntwein n.masc spirits, brandywine LRC
Braten n.masc roasted meat W7
braten vb to roast, broil ASD
Bratwurst n.fem bratwurst LRC
brauen vb to brew ASD
brennen vb to burn ASD
Brot n.neut bread TLL
Brühe n.fem broth LRC
Brunnen n.masc bourn; fount, source ASD
Brut n.fem brood ASD
Sauerbraten n sauerbraten, lit. sour roast W7
Schönbrunn prop.n Viennese palace, lit. beautiful fountain LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: brenna, brann vb.str.intrans to burn, be on fire LRC
brenna, brennad vb.wk.trans to burn, light, set on fire LRC
Old Icelandic: brandr n.str.masc brand, blaze GED
brasa, brasað vb to braze, harden in fire ICE
brauð n.str.neut bread GED/RPN
brenna vb.wk to cause to burn GED
brinna vb.str to burn GED
broð n broth GED
brugga vb.wk to brew, prepare through fermentation GED
brundr n.str.masc blaze, heat GED
bruni n.str.masc burning GED
brunnr n.str.masc fount, source GED
*bryggja vb.str to brew, prepare through fermentation GED
Icelandic: brandr n.masc brand, fire; sword blade ASD
brasa vb to braze, harden by fire CDC
brauð n bread TLL
brugga vb to brew ASD
brunnr n.masc bourn ASD
Danish: brad n joint of meat CDC
brand n brand, fire ASD
brase vb to fry, braise CDC
brygge vb to brew ASD
brönd n.masc/fem bourn ASD
brøt n bread TLL
brände vb to burn ASD
Swedish: brand n.masc brand, fire ASD
brasa n flame CDC
brunn n.masc bourn ASD
brygga vb to brew ASD
bröd n bread TLL
bränna vb to burn ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *ala-brunsts n.fem burnt offering GED
brannjan vb to burn ASD
*brinnan vb.str.III to burn GED
brinno n.fem fever GED
brunna n.str.masc fount, source GED
*gabrannjan vb.wk.I to burn up GED
*inbrannjan vb.wk.I to set on fire GED
*ufbrinnan vb.str.III to burn up GED
Crimean Gothic: *broet, broe n bread CGo/GED
brunna n.str.masc fount, source GED
Latin: dēfrutum n boiled-down cider GED
fornix, fornicis n.masc arch, vault; brothel W7
Late Latin: fornicatus vb.ptc arched, vaulted W7
fornico, fornicāre, fornicātus vb to fornicate W7
New Latin: fornix n.fem anatomical arch/fold W7
Portuguese: abrazar vb to set on fire CDC
bradon, brazon, braon n brawn, piece of flesh CDC
brandir vb to brandish CDC
braza n ember, live coal CDC
Old Spanish: brahon n brawn, piece of flesh CDC
Spanish: abrasar vb to set on fire CDC
blandir vb to brandish CDC
brasa n.fem ember, live coal CDC
brasero n.masc brazier LRC
Old French: abraser, esbraser vb to set on fire CDC
bodne, bonne n bourn; bound, limit, destination CDC
brand, bran(t) n sword CDC
brandir vb to brandish W7
braon n meat, brawn AHD
broet, broez n.masc broth W7
Anglo-French: breu n brew, broth AHD
broiller vb to broil, confuse, mix up AHD
Middle French: brandir, brandissē vb to brandish W7
braon n brawn, muscle W7
brouiller vb to broil W7
burn, bourne n.masc bourn W7
embrouiller vb to entangle, cover up W7
French: borne n.fem bound, limit, marker CDC
bracier n brazier CDC
braise n.fem ember, live coal(s) CDC
braiser vb to braise, cook over live coals CDC
brandade n brandade AHD
brandir vb to brandish CDC
brandon n brand, torch CDC
braser vb to braze CDC
embraser vb to set on fire CDC
embrouiller vb to tangle, cloud over W7
Old Provençal: brandar vb to shake, brandish AHD
Old Occitan: brasa vb to braise CDC
Provençal: bran n sword CDC
brandado n brandade AHD
brandir vb to brandish CDC
brasa n ember, live coal CDC
embraser vb to set on fire CDC
Italian: abbraciare vb to set on fire CDC
braciola n braciola AHD
bragia, bra(s)cia n ember, live coal CDC
brandire vb to brandish CDC
brando n sword CDC
bresaola n bresaola AHD
imbrogliare vb to entangle W7
imbroglio n.masc imbroglio, messiness W7
Russian: bruja n.fem current GED
Homeric Greek: πρήθω vb to burn, blow into flame CDC
Greek: φρέᾱρ n well, reservoir GED
φρέᾱτος n well, reservoir GED
Armenian: atbiur n fount GED
Sanskrit: bhuráti vb to move rapidly GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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