Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bherg̑h-   'to keep, hide, bury'

Semantic Field(s): to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe, to Hide, Conceal


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: beorgan vb.str to keep, preserve GED
birgean, bir(i)gan vb to bury ASD
borg, borh n.masc bail, pledge, surety, security ASD/MEV
borgian vb to borrow W7
byrgels, birgels, bergels burials ASD/W7
byr(i)gan, byri(ge)an vb to bury ASD/W7
Middle English: bargain, bargyne n bargain CDC
bargainen vb to bargain W7
barga(y)n, barge(y)n n bargain CDC/MEV
berial, beriel n burial W7
borow n bail, surety MEV
bor(o)wen vb to borrow CDC/W7
burien vb to bury W7
English: bargain n agreement re: transaction W7
bargain vb to haggle, negotiate terms of purchase/contract/agreement AHD/W7
borrow vb to receive with intention of returning same/equivalent AHD/W7
Bucklebury prop.n hobbit town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
burial n tomb, grave AHD/W7
bury vb.trans to place (as if) in earth/sea AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: borga vb to borrow ASD
Old Dutch: berghen vb to bury ASD
Dutch: bergen vb to bury ASD
borgen vb to borrow ASD
Old Saxon: burgisli n tomb W7
gi-bergan vb.str to keep, preserve GED
Old High German: bergan, perkan vb.str to keep, preserve, shelter ASD/GED
borgēn vb to borrow CDC
Middle High German: bergen vb to save, protect, preserve ASD
borgen vb to borrow ASD
German: bergen vb to bury; salvage, recover ASD
borgen vb to borrow ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: biarga vb to save, protect, preserve ASD
byrgja vb to include ASD
Old Icelandic: bjarga vb.str to keep, preserve GED
Icelandic: borga vb to borrow CDC
Danish: bjerge vb to save, protect, preserve ASD
borge vb to borrow ASD
Swedish: berga vb to save, protect, preserve ASD
borga vb to borrow ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *bairgan vb.str.III to keep GED
Middle Latin: *barcania, barcanium n bargain, traffic CDC
Portuguese: barganha n bargain CDC
Old French: bargai(g)ne n bargain CDC/MEV
bargaignier vb to bargain AHD
Middle French: bargaignier vb to bargain W7
Old Occitan: barganh, barganka n bargain CDC
Italian: bargagna, bargagno n bargain CDC
Lithuanian: bìrginti vb to be parsimonious GED
Old Church Slavonic: brěgǫ, brěšti vb to care for GED
Russian: bérežno adj careful GED
berech vb to save W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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