Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bheu-, bheu̯ə-, bhu̯ā-, bhu̯ē- : bhō̆u- : bhū-   'to be, exist; grow, prosper'

Semantic Field(s): to Grow, Strong, Mighty, Powerful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: both n.fem hut, bothy AHD/GED
bōi was GED
Irish: bo(i)th n booth CDC
Gaelic: buth n booth CDC
Welsh: bod n hut GED
bum was TLL
Old English: bēam n.str.masc tree, beam GED
bēo, bist, biþ am, are, is TLL
bēon, biōn vb.anom to be ASD/W7
bēor n.str.neut beer GED
bēoþ are TLL
bēow n barley GED
bōgian vb.wk to dwell, inhabit, settle (at) GED/RPN
bold n.neut house, dwelling, building AHD/ASD
botl n.neut hall, house, abode, dwelling ASD/IEW
bū, bȳ n home, dwelling ASD/GED/RPN
bū(g)an, būde, bȳne vb.irr to live, dwell, inhabit ASD
būr n.neut bower, shelter ASD
būw(i)an vb to dwell, cultivate GED
byldan vb to build W7
bȳre n byre W7
cwic-bēam n.masc quick-beam, lit. quick-tree (type of poplar?) ASD
gebūr n.masc dweller ASD/W7
hūsbonda, hūsbunda n.masc husband, master of house ASD/W7
impe n.fem imp, scion ASD
impian vb to imp W7
nēahgebūr n.masc neighbor, lit. near-dweller ASD/W7
Middle English: be(e), beo am CDC
beem, beme n beam CDC/W7
be(e)n, beon vb.anom to be CDC/MEV/W7
be(e)st, beost, bist are CDC
be(o)th is CDC
bilawe n bylaw W7
bilden vb to build W7
bilt n dwelling MEV
bothe n booth W7
boun(e), bowne adj bound, prompt MEV/W7
*bour n boor, dweller CDC
bour(e), bower n bower, abode MEV/W7
byre, bere n byre MEV/W7
future n future W7
husbonde n husband W7
impen vb to imp W7
neighbor n neighbor W7
phisik n medical/natural science W7
phisiken vb to administer medical treatment W7
English: apophysis n expanded/projecting part of organism AHD/W7
be, been vb.anom to exist, have same connotation as AHD/W7
beam n long piece of heavy timber used in construction AHD/W7
Boer prop.n white South African of Dutch descent; rebel in Boer War LRC
bondage n villein tenure/service AHD/W7
boodle n group of people AHD/W7
boom n spar used to extend foot of sail/facilitate mooring/handling of cargo AHD/W7
boor n peasant AHD/W7
booth n temporary shelter for livestock/field workers AHD/W7
bothy n booth, basic shelter AHD
bound adj ready AHD/W7
bower n attractive dwelling/retreat AHD/W7
build, built vb.wk to construct, form by joining materials into composite whole AHD/W7
bumpkin n awkward, unsophisticated rustic AHD/W7
bumpkin n projecting boom of ship AHD/W7
bustle n noisy excited activity AHD
bustle vb to (cause to) move busily/energetically AHD
Butterbur(r) prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
bylaw n rule adopted by organization for government and regulation of affairs AHD/W7
byre n cow barn AHD/W7
diaphysis n shaft of long bone AHD/W7
diphyodont adj having 2 sets of teeth AHD/CDC
epiphysis n separately ossifying bone part later ankylosed to main part AHD/W7
fiat n command that creates AHD/W7
forebear n forefather, ancestor AHD/W7
future adj (that) which is to be AHD/W7
Grimbold prop.n Rohan marshal in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Hardbottle prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
husband n married man AHD/W7
hypophysis n pituitary body AHD/W7
imp n bud, shoot, graft W7
imp vb.trans to graft/repair (with feather) AHD/W7
metaphysics n philosophy of ontology/cosmology/epistemology W7
Monophysite prop.n member of certain early Christian heretical sect LRC
neighbor n one living/located near another AHD/W7
neophyte n proselyte, new convert AHD/W7
phyle n largest (ancient Athenian) political subdivision AHD/W7
phyletic adj phylogenetic AHD
phylogenetic adj re: phylogeny AHD
phylogeny n evolution of genetically related organisms AHD/W7
phylum n line of descent within group AHD/W7
physic vb.trans to treat with/administer medicine to AHD/W7
physics n art/practice of healing disease AHD/W7
physi(o)- pfx nature AHD/W7
physique n bodily makeup, referring to strength/structure/appearance/constitution AHD/W7
-phyte n.pfx plant having (certain) habitat/characteristic AHD/W7
phyt(o)- pfx plant AHD
phyton n plant leaf with stem AHD/W7
Quickbeam prop.n Ent a.k.a. Bregalad in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
symphysis n somewhat movable bone articulation in body's median plane AHD/W7
tracheophyte n vascular plant having conducting system of phloem/xylem AHD/W7
American English: caboodle n boodle CDC
British English: quick-beam n.dial mountain-ash OED
Scots English: bear n one who exists W7
been vb.anom to be W7
bothy n bunkhouse, small cottage LRC
buith n booth CDC
forebear n ancestor W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: bām n.str.masc tree GED
bem am CDC
bōgia vb.wk to dwell, inhabit GED
bouwje vb to dwell, inhabit ASD
bowa, buwa vb to dwell, cultivate GED
Frisian: boer n.masc boor, farmer, dweller ASD
North Frisian: baem, beamme, bjemme n tree ASD
Middle Dutch: beboer n rustic, farmer, husbandman CDC
bōdel n riches, property; boodle AHD
bomme n cask W7
bommekijn n little barrel W7
ghebure, ghebuer n neighbor CDC
Dutch: ben (I) am TLL
bent (you) are TLL
boedel n lot, estate W7
Boer prop.n Boer W7
boer n.masc boor, farmer, dweller ASD/W7
boerderij n farm TLL
boom n.masc tree; bar, pole, beam, boom ASD/W7
bouw n.masc bower, dwelling ASD
bouwen vb to dwell RPN
buur n neighbor CDC
gebouw n building TLL
Flemish: boom n tree W7
boomken n shrub W7
Old Saxon: bist are CDC
bium am CDC
bōm n.str.masc tree GED
bū n.neut home, property ASD/GED
būan vb to dwell, cultivate GED/RPN
Middle Low German: bōde n.str.fem booth, hut, tent, abode GED
bōm n tree CDC
(ge)būr n boor, husbandman CDC
Low German: boom n tree; bar, pole, beam, boom CDC
buur, būr n.masc boor, farmer; neighbor, citizen ASD/CDC
Old High German: bim, pim am CDC/W7
bior n.str.neut beer GED
boum, poum n.str.masc tree ASD/GED
bū n.str.neut home, dwelling, cultivation GED
būr n.str.masc cage, building GED
bū(w)an, būen vb to dwell, cultivate GED/RPN
gibūr(o) n boor, rustic, husbandman CDC
impfōn vb to imp, graft W7
nāhgibūr n neighbor W7
pis(t) are CDC
pū n.masc dwelling ASD
Middle High German: bin am ASD
bist are CDC
boum n.masc tree ASD
bouwen, b(i)uwen vb to dwell, inhabit ASD
bū, bou n.masc dwelling ASD
būde, buode n.str.fem booth, hut, tent, abode GED
gebūr(e) n boor, rustic, husbandman CDC
German: Bau n.masc building ASD
bauen vb to build; dwell, inhabit ASD
Bauer n.masc boor, farmer ASD
Bauer n.masc/neut cage, bower, aviary ASD/GED
Bauernhof n farm TLL
Baum n.masc tree ASD
bin am ASD
bist are TLL
Bude n.fem booth, hut, shack LRC
Bure prop.n.masc Boer LRC
Gebäude n building TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: bōndi n yeoman, franklin, husband W7
búa, búinn vb to live, prepare, be ready; settle LRC
būþ n booth W7
byggja, bygð vb to build; dwell, inhabit LRC
bȳlög n bylaw, rule adopted by town W7
bȳr n town W7
hūsbōndi n husband, householder W7
Old Icelandic: baðmr n.str.masc tree GED
ból n lair RPN
bōl n.neut dwelling, animal lair GED
bū n dwelling, household; farming GED/RPN
būa vb to dwell, prepare GED
būð n.str.fem booth, hut, tent, abode GED
būr n.str.neut chamber, building for stores GED
bygg n barley GED
byggva vb to inhabit GED
bȳr, bœr n.str.masc house, farm GED
bǫrr n.str.masc tree GED
Icelandic: baðmr n.masc tree ASD
bū n.neut dwelling ASD
būa, bōa vb to dwell, inhabit ASD/CDC
būð n booth, dwelling CDC
būr n.neut bower ASD
Norwegian: bomm, bumm, bumb n boom, bar CDC
Old Danish: bōþ n booth, stall, dwelling AHD
Danish: bo n.masc/fem dwelling ASD
bod n booth, stall CDC
bo(e) vb to dwell ASD/GED
bom n boom, beam, bar, rail, perch CDC
bonde n farmer LRC
buur n.neut bower ASD
by n town TLL
bygning n building TLL
Old Swedish: bagn n.str.masc tree GED
bo vb to dwell GED
bōþ n.str.fem booth, hut, tent, abode GED
Swedish: bo n.masc dwelling ASD
bo vb to dwell, inhabit ASD
bod n booth, stall CDC
bom n boom, beam, bar, rail, perch CDC
bonde n farmer TLL
bur n.masc bower ASD
by n village TLL
byggnad n building TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: bagms n.masc tree ASD/GED
bauan vb.str.VII to live, dwell, inhabit GED/RPN
Latin: fiat vb.subj let it be W7
fio, fieri vb.defc to become, be made LRC
fuī, fuisti, fuit was, were W7
futurus vb.ptc about to be W7
physica physics, natural science W7
physicus adj of nature W7
superbus, superba, superbum adj haughty LRC
Late Latin: neophytus n.masc beginner W7
Medieval Latin: Monophysita n.fem Monophysite W7
New Latin: apophysis n.fem bringing forth W7
byre n.fem a cow barn W7
diaphysis n.fem the shaft of a long bone W7
epiphysis n.fem separated ossification of a bone W7
hypophysis n.fem pituitary body W7
phylum n.neut a direct line of descent withing a group W7
phyton n.neut a structural unit of a plant W7
symphysis n.fem state of growing together W7
Tracheophyta n.fem genus name W7
Spanish: fuí, fuiste, fué was, were TLL
Old French: fisique n.fem medicine W7
futur adj about to be W7
French: fus, fut was, were TLL
physique adj physical, bodily W7
Italian: fui, fosti, fu was, were TLL
Old Prussian: buttan n house GED
buwinanti dwell! GED
Old Lithuanian: bu vb.pret was GED
Lithuanian: bùtas n house GED
bū́ti, yrà, bùvo vb to be LRC
bū́ti vb to be GED
bū̃vis n life, existence GED
Latvian: būt, esmu, biju vb to be LRC
Polish: buda n booth CDC
Czech: bouda n booth CDC
byt n home GED
Sorbian: buda n booth CDC
Old Church Slavonic: by vb.pret was GED
byvati, byvajǫ, byvaješi vb to be LRC
byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši vb to be, become LRC
prěbyti, prěbǫdǫ, prěbǫdeši vb to abide, remain LRC
Russian: budka n booth CDC
Albanian: buj vb to spend the night RPN
Greek: apophuein vb to send out branches AHD
apophusis n branch, apophysis AHD
diaphyesthai vb to grow between W7
diaphysis n.fem spinous process of the tibia W7
epiphyesthai vb to grow on W7
epiphysis n.fem growth W7
ἔφῡ vb.aor was GED
neophytos adj newly planted, newly converted W7
symphyesthai vb to grow together W7
symphysis n.fem state of growing together W7
hypophyein vb to grow beneath W7
hypophysis n.fem attachment underneath W7
phyesthai vb to grow W7
φύη n.fem stature LRC
phylē n.fem tribe W7
phylon n.neut tribe, race W7
φῦμα n growth GED
phynai vb to be born, be by nature W7
φύομαι vb to become GED
physika physical things, natural things W7
physikē n.fem study of nature W7
physikos adj of nature W7
physis n.fem growth, nature W7
phyton n.neut plant W7
φύω vb to grow, become, bring forth LRC
φωλεός n cave inhabited by wild animals GED
Medieval Greek: Monophysitēs adj Monophysite W7
Avestan: bavaiti vb to be, become GED
Sanskrit: ábhūt vb.aor was GED
bahúṣ n arm GED
bhávati vb to be, exist, become GED/RPN
bhú n.fem earth, site, place ASD
bhú vb to be, become, spring up ASD
bhū́ma n earth, being GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
2=2nd person
3=3rd person
VII=class 7
aor=aorist (tense)
fem=feminine (gender)
imp=imperative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pret=preterite (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
subj=subjunctive (mood)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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