Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bheudh-, nasalized bhu-n-dh-   'to awaken, be aware'

Semantic Field(s): to Wake, to Know


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: as-boind vb to refuse GED
buide n satisfaction LRC
ro-bud n warning, advice GED
Cornish: both n will LRC
Welsh: bodd n free will LRC
Old English: bēodan, bēad, budon, boden vb.str.II to bid, proclaim LRC
bodi(g)an, bodigean vb to bode, proclaim ASD
bydel, bȳdel n.masc beadle ASD/W7
for-bēodan, for-bīodan vb.str.II to forbid ASD/GED
on-bēodan vb.str.II to order, proclaim GED
Middle English: bedel(e), bidel, budel n beadle, herald, messenger CDC/MEV/W7
beden vb to bid W7
bod(i)en vb to bode CDC/W7
forbidden vb to forbid W7
English: beadle n minor parish official who ushers/preserves order AHD/W7
bid, bid, bade, bid(den) vb.str to tell, offer, command AHD/W7
bode vb.trans to foretell, announce beforehand AHD/W7
Buddha prop.n enlightened being named in scriptures of Buddhism, esp. Siddartha Gautama LRC
forbid, forbad(e), forbidden vb.str.trans to prohibit, command against AHD/W7
verboten adj forbidden, prohibited AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: biada vb.str to bid, order GED
bodia vb to bode, proclaim ASD
Dutch: beul n.masc beadle ASD
bieden vb to bid ASD
Old Saxon: an-biodan, an-beodan vb.str.II to order, proclaim ASD/GED
biodan vb.str to bid, order GED
Old High German: biotan vb.str to bid, order GED
butil n.masc beadle, bailiff ASD/W7
far-biotan vb.str.II to forbid GED
in-biotan, in-piotan vb.str.II to order, proclaim ASD/GED
Middle High German: biuten vb to bid ASD
bütel n beadle ASD
German: bieten vb to bid IEW
Büttel n.masc beadle ASD
verboten adj verboten AHD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: bjóða vb to bid, summon; provide LRC
Old Icelandic: bjōða vb.str to bid, order GED
Icelandic: bjōða vb to bid, order CDC
boða vb to bode, announce ASD
Danish: bebude vb to bode CDC
byde vb to bid ASD
Swedish: bjuda vb to bid ASD
båda vb to bode CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *ana-biudan vb.str.II to bid, order GED
biudan vb to bid ASD
Medieval Latin: bedellus n beadle, herald AHD
Portuguese: bedel n beadle CDC
Spanish: bedel n beadle CDC
Old French: bedel n beadle CDC
French: bedeau n beadle CDC
Old Occitan: bedel n beadle CDC
Italian: bidello n beadle CDC
Lithuanian: budė́ti vb to wake, be awake GED/RPN
bùdinti vb to awaken GED
bùsti vb to awaken LRC
Latvian: baũslis vb to offer LRC
Old Church Slavonic: bljudǫ vb to watch, observe GED
buditi vb to awaken RPN
bъdrъ adj watchful RPN
bъděti vb to wake, be awake GED/RPN
Russian: bljusti vb to watch LRC
Greek: πεύθομαι vb to perceive, examine, experience GED/RPN
πυνθάνομαι vb.dep to inquire, examine, experience GED
Avestan: baoδaiti vb to perceive LRC
baoðayeiti vb to indicate GED
Sanskrit: Buddha n Buddha W7
buddhá-ḥ n awakened, enlightened; understood RPN
buddhí-ḥ n reason, discernment, intelligence RPN
bodhá-ḥ n knowledge, perception RPN
bódhati vb to wake, awaken; notice, observe, perceive GED/RPN
bodhi-ḥ n perfect knowledge/wisdom RPN
*bhudh, budh vb to understand, be awake CDC
Tocharian B: paut- vb to honor, flatter GED
Tocharian A: pot- vb to honor, flatter GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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