Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bhlē̆i- : bhləi- : bhlī-   'to shine, glitter'

Semantic Field(s): to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: blāc adj bright, white RPN
blēo n.str form, hue, color, visage GED/RPN
blīcan vb to shine, glitter RPN
blis(s), blys(s) n.str.fem bliss ASD/GED
blīþe adj blithe GED
blīþian vb.wk to rejoice GED
blīþs, blīds n.str.fem bliss ASD/GED
Middle English: ble(o) n hue, radiance, complexion MEV
blis(se), blys(se) n bliss MEV/W7
blith(e), bliþe, blyþe, blythe adj blithe CDC/MEV/W7
English: bliss n joy, gladness, happiness GED
blithe adj glad, happy, pleasant, lighthearted GED
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: *blīde, blīd- adj blithe CDC/GED
bli(e) n.str color GED
blika vb to shine, glitter ASD
Frisian: blike vb to shine, appear ASD
North Frisian: blid adj kind, merciful CDC
Dutch: blij(de) adj kind, merciful CDC
Old Saxon: blī n lead (metal) KSW
blī n.str color GED
blīdōn, blīthōn vb.wk to rejoice GED
blīdsea, blīzza, blītzea n.fem bliss CDC/GED
blīdsean vb.wk to delight GED
blikan vb to shine, glitter ASD
blīthi adj blithe GED
Old High German: arblichan vb to blanch, shine by exposure ASD
blīden vb.wk to rejoice GED
blīdi adj blithe GED
blīo n lead (metal) KDW
blīzzen vb.wk to delight GED
Middle High German: blichen vb to shine, glitter ASD
blīde adj kind, merciful CDC
German: Blei n.neut lead (metal) TLL
bleich adj pale, faint; sheer LRC
Bleistift n.masc lead pencil LRC
erbleichen vb to blanch, shine by exposure ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: blik(j)a vb to shine, glitter ASD
blý n lead (metal) KNW
Old Icelandic: blīðr adj mild, pleasant (of weather) GED
Icelandic: blīdhr adj kind, merciful CDC
Danish: blid adj kind, merciful CDC
bly n lead (metal) TLL
Swedish: blid adj kind, merciful CDC
bly n lead (metal) TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: bleiþs adj kind, merciful GED
Lithuanian: blizgú vb to shine ASD
Old Church Slavonic: blědъ adj light green, yellow RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at