Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhlendh-   'dim, pale, blond, reddish'

Semantic Field(s): Yellow, Red


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: blandan, blondan, blēond, blēondon, blanden vb.str to blend ASD/GED/RPN
blendan vb.wk to blind, deceive GED/RPN
blind adj blind RPN
blonden-feax adj having gray/mixed-colored hair RPN
liþblandus adj thick (re: soup) W7
Middle English: blenden vb to blend W7
blenden vb to blind W7
blind, blynd(e) adj blind, deluded CDC/MEV/W7
blind n blindfold W7
blinden vb to (become) blind, deceive CDC
blindfelden, blin(d)fellen, blyndfellen vb to blindfold, strike blind CDC/W7
blondren, blunderen vb to blunder CDC
blunder n blunder, trouble MEV
blundren vb.wk to blunder, confuse, stir up GED/RPN
English: blend, blent vb.wk to mix AHD/W7
blende n sphalerite AHD/W7
blind adj sightless, unable to see AHD/W7
blind n shade, screen, shutter W7
blind vb to make/strike blind LRC
blindfold vb.trans to cover eyes with scarf/bandage AHD/W7
blond(e) adj flaxen/golden/pale-brown in color IEW/W7
blunder n mistake, confusion MEV
blunder vb to make mistake, move confusedly GED
purblind adj wholly blind AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: blenda, blinda vb.wk to blind ASD/GED
blenda vb.wk to blend GED
blind adj blind GED
Old Dutch: blind adj blind ASD
Dutch: blind adj blind ASD
blinden vb to blind ASD
blond adj/n blond CDC
Old Saxon: blandan vb.str to blend GED
blind adj blind GED
Middle Low German: blenden vb.wk to blind GED
Old High German: blandan, blantan vb.str to blend ASD/GED/RPN
blenten, blentjan vb to blind ASD/W7
blenten vb.wk to blend GED
blinden vb to become blind CDC
blint adj blind GED
plenten vb.wk to blind GED
Middle High German: blanden vb to blend CDC
blenden vb to blind ASD
blint adj blind ASD
blunt adj blond, fair-haired IEW
German: Blende n.fem blind; blende CDC/W7
blenden vb to blind W7
blind adj blind ASD
blond adj blond IEW
North Germanic  
Old Norse: blanda, blett, blandað vb.str to blend LRC
blindr adj blind LRC
Old Icelandic: blanda vb.str to blend GED
blinda vb to blind RPN
blindr adj blind GED
blunda vb.wk to sleep, close one's eyes GED/RPN
blundr n dozing, slumber RPN
Icelandic: blanda vb to blend CDC
blinda vb to blind ASD
blindr adj blind ASD
blunda vb to doze CDC
blunðr n nap, doze CDC
Danish: blande vb to blend CDC
blind adj blind ASD
blinde vb to blind CDC
blond adj/n blond CDC
blund n nap, doze CDC
blunde vb to doze, slumber CDC
for-blinde vb to blind ASD
Swedish: blanda vb.str to blend ASD
blind adj blind ASD
blund n nap, doze CDC
blunda vb to doze, slumber CDC
för-blinda vb to blind ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *af-blindnan vb to become blind GED
blandan vb.str.III to blend; associate with GED/RPN
blinds adj blind RPN
*ga-blindjan vb.wk.I to make blind GED
Middle Latin: blundus, blondus adj/n blond CDC
Medieval Latin: blundus, blondos adj/n blond, yellow IEW/RPN
Spanish: blondo n/adj blond RPN
Old French: blond(e) n/adj blond, light-colored ODE
French: blond(e) adj/n blond, fair-haired (one) IEW/RPN
Old Provençal: blon n/adj blond RPN
Italian: biondo adj/n blond, fair-haired (one) IEW/RPN
Lithuanian: blandùs adj cloudy, impure, unclean GED/RPN
blendzas adj blind CDC
blendžiù, blę̃sti vb to become dark RPN
blę̃sti vb to blend food with flour GED
blę̃stis vb to become dark GED/RPN
Latvian: blenst adj dim CDC
Old Church Slavonic: bledŭ adj dim, pale CDC
blędą, blęsti vb to err GED
blędǫ, blęsti vb to go blindly RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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