Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhleu-   'to bloat, swell, blow up; flow'

Semantic Field(s): to Grow, to Blow, to Flow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: affluent adj affluent W7
blout adj bloat, soft, flabby ODE/W7
blust(e)ren vb to bluster; wander about aimlessly CDC/W7
flum n river W7
flux n flux W7
influence n influence W7
reflux n reflux W7
superfluous adj superfluous W7
English: affluent adj copious, flowing in abundance AHD/W7
bloat adj puffy, bloated W7
bloat n swelling of rumen/intestinal tract AHD
bloat vb to swell, puff up RPN
bluster vb to roar, pound, thunder, be noisy IEW
confluent adj flowing/coming together AHD/W7
effluent n/adj (something) flowing out AHD/W7
effluvium n invisible emanation AHD/W7
efflux n effluence AHD/W7
fluctuate vb to ebb/flow in waves AHD/W7
fluent adj fluid, capable of flowing AHD/W7
fluid adj easily yielding to pressure AHD/W7
flume n ravine/gorge with running stream AHD/W7
fluor n fluorite AHD/W7
fluoride n binary fluorine compound AHD/W7
fluorine n pale yellow halogen gas AHD/W7
fluorite n calcium fluoride (mineral) W7
flush n sudden flow AHD/W7
fluvial adj re: stream/river AHD/W7
fluviomarine adj re: seafloor deposits near river mouth AHD
flux n flow of fluid from body AHD/W7
influence n ethereal fluid flowing from stars, affecting actions of men AHD/W7
influenza n acute contagious viral disease AHD/W7
influx n inflow, flowing in AHD/W7
mellifluous adj flowing/sweetened with honey AHD/W7
phallus n penis W7
phloem n complex tissue in higher plant vascular system AHD/W7
phlyctena n small blister/vesicle AHD
reflux n ebb, back-flow AHD/W7
solifluction n soil creep over frozen ground AHD
superfluous adj extra, exceeding what is needed/sufficient AHD/W7
West Germanic  
East Frisian: blüstern vb to bluster CDC
Middle Low German: blüsteren vb to bluster W7
Low German: blustern, blistern vb to flutter about anxiously CDC
German: Phloem n phloem W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: blautr adj soft, bloat; wet, soaked ODE
blotna vb to bloat, become soft/moist ODE
Icelandic: blautr adj soft, bloat CDC
Swedish: blöt adj soft, bloat CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: miliþ n.neut honey GED/W7
Latin: affluo, affluere vb to flow (in)to/abundantly W7
confluo, confluere vb to flow together, be confluent W7
effluo, effluere, effluxi, effluxus vb to flow out W7
effluvium n.neut effluvium, act of flowing out W7
flō, flāre, flāvi<>M>, flātus vb to blow W7
fluctuō, fluctuāre, fluctuāvi, fluctuātus vb to fluctuate, float on waves, be agitated W7
fluctus, fluctūs n.masc flow, wave W7
fluidus adj fluid, re: liquid W7
flūmen, flūminis n.neut flume, river LRC
fluō, fluere, flūxī, fluxus vb to flow RPN
fluvialis adj fluvial W7
fluvius n.masc river W7
fluxus, fluxūs n.masc flux, flow W7
influo, influere, influxi, influxus vb to flow in W7
phallus n.masc phallus W7
superfluo, superfluere, superfluxi, superfluxus vb to overflow W7
superfluus adj superfluous, overflowing, running over W7
Late Latin: influxus n.masc influx W7
mellifluus adj mellifluous, flowing with honey W7
Medieval Latin: influentia n.fem influence W7
refluxus n.masc reflux W7
New Latin: fluor n.masc fluor W7
Old French: affluent adj affluent AHD
Middle French: affluent adj affluent W7
flux n.masc flux, flow W7
influence n.fem influence W7
French: fluide adj fluid, re: liquid W7
Italian: influènza n.fem power, influence W7
Old Church Slavonic: bljujǫ vb to vomit RPN
Greek: φαλλός n.masc phallus LS
φλέω vb to teem, abound RPN
φλοιός, φλόος n.masc (tree) bark LS
φλύζω vb to seethe, overflow, boil over RPN
φλύω vb to seethe, overflow, boil over RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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