Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhlē-u̯o-s   'a light color (blue, yellow)'

Semantic Field(s): Light in Color, Blue, Yellow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: *blāw adj blue IEW
Middle English: blo adj black and blue MEV
bl(u)we, blue, blew(e), bl(e)u adj/n blue MEV/W7/CDC
English: blue adj re: color blue (short-wavelength visible light) AHD/W7
flavin n yellow nitrogenous water-soluble pigment AHD/W7
flavone n colorless crystalline ketone found in primroses AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: blaw adj blue CDC
Middle Dutch: blaeuw adj blue CDC
Dutch: blaauw adj blue CDC
Middle Low German: blā(w), blauwe adj blue CDC
Low German: blau, blaag adj blue CDC
Old High German: blāo adj blue W7/IEW
Middle High German: blā adj blue; yellow IEW
German: blau adj blue IEW
North Germanic  
Old Norse: blár adj black and blue MEV
Icelandic: blār adj blue CDC
Danish: blaa adj blue CDC
Swedish: blå adj blue CDC
Latin: flāvus adj yellow, golden IEW
Middle Latin: blāv(i)us adj blue CDC
Portuguese: blao adj blue CDC
Old Spanish: blavo adj blue CDC
Spanish: blao adj blue CDC
Old French: blue, blef adj blue CDC
French: blue adj blue CDC
Provençal: blau adj blue CDC
blava n.fem blue CDC
Italian: biaro, blù adj blue CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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