Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bhreu-s-   'to swell, sprout'

Semantic Field(s): to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: brú n belly RPN
Old English: brēost n.neut breast ASD/W7
Middle English: brest n breast W7
brusket n brisket W7
English: breast n protuberant mammalian milk-producing gland AHD/W7
breastfeed, breastfed vb.str to feed from breast LRC
brisket n (meat of) breast/lower chest of quadruped animal AHD/W7
browse n tender tree/shrub shoots/twigs/leaves AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: brust n breast ASD
Frisian: boarst n breast ASD
Dutch: borst n.fem breast ASD
Old Saxon: breost, briost n.neut breast ASD
brustian vb to sprout W7
Old High German: briustern vb to swell RPN
brust n.fem breast ASD/W7
Middle High German: brust n.fem breast ASD
German: Brust n.fem breast ASD
brüsten vb to brag, boast LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: brjōst n.neut breast ASD
Danish: bryst n.neut breast ASD
Swedish: bröst n breast TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: brusts n.fem breast ASD/RPN
Middle French: brout n.masc sprout W7
brouts sprouts W7
Russian: bryukho n belly W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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