Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. bhreu-s-   'to bruise, break to pieces'

Semantic Field(s): to Break


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: brūu I bruise, shatter W7
Middle Breton: brusun n small crumb IEW
Middle Cornish: brew adj broken IEW
Middle Welsh: breu adj weak, fragile, decrepit IEW
Old English: briesan, brȳsan vb to bruise, break ASD/IEW
brosnian vb.wk to rot, decay, crumble ASD/IEW
Middle English: brisen, brusen vb to bruise W7
English: bruise vb to crush, mangle; injure, disable AHD/W7
frustule n diatom's 2-valved siliceous shell AHD/W7
frustum n part of cone-shaped solid incl. base AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: bruisen vb to foam, roar (as the sea) ASD
Old High German: brōsma n scrap, crumb, morsel IEW
Middle High German: brōsme, brōsem(e) n scrap, crumb, morsel IEW
German: brausen vb to foam, ferment; roar ASD
Brosam n.masc scrap, crumb LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: brūsa vb to boil, seethe, be agitated ASD
Danish: bruse vb to roar ASD
Swedish: brusa vb to roar ASD
Latin: frustulum n.neut small piece W7
frustum n.neut part, piece W7
New Latin: frustum n.neut part of cone-shaped solid incl. base W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)
1=1st person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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