Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: de-, do-   'I-deictic; here'

Semantic Field(s): Word


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: di prep from W7
Old English: tō adv/prep/pfx apart; (in)to; as, for; quite LRC
Middle English: de- pfx de- W7
to prep (in)to, unto W7
too adv too W7
English: de- pfx (do) opposite of AHD/W7
debase vb to vitiate, reduce in state/quality AHD/CDC
decalescence n reduced temperature increase due to phase change AHD
decurrent adj extending downward from place of insertion AHD/CDC
deflate vb to lose/remove air AHD/CDC
deglutinate vb to unglue, loosen, separate AHD/CDC
dement vb to make insane, destroy mind AHD/CDC
demersal adj sinking in water; dwelling at/near bottom AHD/CDC
descend vb to move to lower place AHD/CDC
detente n easing of tensions/relations AHD
deteriorate vb to impair, make/become inferior in quality AHD/W7
detumescence n diminution of swelling AHD/CDC
taptoo n call sounded before taps: go to quarters AHD/W7
tattoo n call sounded before taps: go to quarters AHD/W7
to prep (suggesting movement) toward person/place/thing AHD/W7
too adv also, besides AHD/W7
unto prep to, until IEW
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: tō prep/adv to, at ASD
Dutch: taptoe n taptoo W7
te prep to TLL
tegen prep against TLL
Old Saxon: tō prep/adv to, at ASD
Old High German: zuo prep/adv to, at ASD/W7
German: zu prep to, at LRC
North Germanic  
Danish: toe prep/adv to, at ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: du prep in, to, towards, against LRC
Latin: dē, dē- prep/pfx from, undo; about W7
dēterior adj worse W7
dis- pfx not, undo W7
donec conj until, as long as W7
dum conj while LRC
idem, eadem, idem dem.pron the same LRC
inde adv from that LRC
quidam, quaedam, quoddam indef.pron some, a certain LRC
quidem adv in fact, even LRC
quoniam conj since LRC
Late Latin: dēteriorō, dēteriorāre, dēteriorāvī, dēteriorātus vb to make worse, to decay W7
Portuguese: de prep of, by, from TLL
Spanish: de prep of, by, from TLL
Old French: de- pfx undo W7
des- pfx undo W7
Middle French: des- pfx not, undo W7
French: de prep of, from, about TLL
Italian: da prep by, from TLL
di prep of, about TLL
Lithuanian: kad, kadà adv when LRC
Old Church Slavonic: da conj in order to, that; may, let; and, then LRC
do prep (up) to; (with numerals) about LRC
Greek: δέ pcl and, on the other hand; indeed LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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