Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. dei-, dei̯ə-, dī-, di̯ā-   'to shine, glitter; day, sun; god, deity'

Semantic Field(s): to Shine, Glisten, Day, Sun, God


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: dïa, dïe n day GED
dīa n god GED
tre̐-denus adv for 3 days GED
Old English: Julius prop.n July, Julius W7
Tīg, Tīw prop.n Tiu; (name for) T-rune GED
tī(r) n Tyr; (name for) T-rune GED
Tīwes-dæg prop.n Tuesday GED
Middle English: adieu n adieu W7
ajournen vb to adjourn W7
deitee n deity W7
dial n dial W7
diurnal adj diurnal W7
Dives prop.n Dives, rich man depicted in Luke 16:19-31 W7
divin(e) n/adj divine W7
divinen vb to divine W7
journal n journal W7
journey n journey, a day's labor W7
journeyman n journeyman W7
Julie prop.n July W7
meridian n meridian W7
English: adieu n farewell AHD/W7
adjourn vb to suspend indefinitely/until stated time AHD/W7
circadian adj re: circa 1-day periodicity AHD
deific adj deifying, making divine AHD/CDC
deify vb.trans to make god, treat as god W7
deism n doctrine: God is distinct/separated from world AHD/CDC
deity n divinity, rank/essential nature of god/supreme being AHD/W7
Deus prop.n God AHD
Devanagari prop.n script used to write Sanskrit/other Indian languages LRC
Devi prop.n mother goddess, consort to Shiva (Hinduism) AHD
dial n face of sundial AHD/W7
Diana prop.n grove/fountain goddess (Roman mythology) AHD/CDC
diary n journal, record of events/observations kept daily/at frequent intervals AHD/W7
diet n formal assembly of princes/estates AHD/W7
Dione prop.n mother of Aphrodite (Greek mythology) AHD
Dis prop.n god of underworld (Roman mythology) AHD
diurnal adj recurring every day AHD/W7
diva n prima donna AHD/W7
Dives prop.n [incorrectly used name for] antagonist in N.T. parable of Lazarus and Dives AHD/W7
divine adj re: directly from deity AHD/W7
divine n clergyman AHD/W7
divine vb to infer, discover intuitively AHD/W7
joss n Chinese idol/cult image AHD/W7
journal n record of current transactions AHD/W7
journey n trip, travel/passage from place to place AHD/W7
journeyman n tradesman who works day-to-day W7
Jove prop.n Jupiter (Roman mythology) LRC
Julian prop.n male given name; calendar introduced by Julius Caesar W7
Julius prop.n male given name LRC
July prop.n 7th month (in Gregorian calendar) AHD/W7
meridian n midday, hour of noon AHD/W7
postmeridian adj occurring after noon AHD/W7
psychedelic adj re: hallucinatory distortion of perception AHD
Tiu prop.n god of war/sky (Germanic mythology) LRC
Tuesday prop.n lit. Tiu's day LRC
Tyr prop.n god of war/sky (Norse mythology) LRC
Zeus prop.n father of gods/men (Greek mythology) LRC
West Germanic  
Old High German: Zios-tac prop.n Tuesday GED
Ziu(o) prop.n name of a god, letter ASD
North Germanic  
Runic: *Tiwaz n Tiu, Tyr; (name for) T-rune LRC
Old Norse: Teitr prop.n.masc Teit LRC
teitr adj merry, cheerful, frolicsome LRC
Tȳr prop.n Tyr W7
Old Icelandic: teitr adj glowing, cheerful GED
tȳr n (name for) T-rune GED
Icelandic: Týr prop.n Tyr; (name for) T-rune ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *sin-teins adj daily GED
tyz n (name for) T-rune GED
Oscan: Diúveí prop.n Jove LRC
Old Latin: Diovis, Jovis prop.n Jove LRC
Latin: dea, deae n.fem goddess LRC
deus, dei n.masc god LRC
Deus prop.n.masc God W7
diarium n.neut day's allowance of food/pay W7
diēs, diēi n.masc day GED
diurnalis adj diurnal, of the day W7
diurnus adj during the day W7
dīva n.fem diva W7
dīvēs n.masc rich man; Pluto W7
dīvīnō, dīvīnāre vb to tell fortune W7
dīvīnus adj/n.masc divine, of the Gods; seer, soothsayer W7
dīvus adj godlike, divine W7
Julius prop.n.masc Julius, Gaius Caesar (from family of Julii) W7
Julius prop.n.masc July, 5th month (in Julian calendar) W7
Juppiter, Jovis prop.n.masc Jupiter, lit. bright-father W7
medius adj in the middle W7
meridianus adj of midday, southern W7
meridies n.masc noon, south W7
nun-dinum n market held every 9th day GED
postmeridianus adj postmeridian W7
Late Latin: deitas, dietatis n.fem divine nature W7
Medieval Latin: dieta n.fem day's journey, assembly W7
divinus adj of God W7
Portuguese: deus n.masc god W7
dia n day TLL
Old French: ajourner vb to adjourn AHD
jour n.masc day W7
journee n.fem day W7
Middle French: adieu interj adieu, farewell W7
ajourner vb to adjourn W7
deité n.masc deity, divinity, god W7
divin adj of God W7
diviner vb to guess, tell fortune W7
journal adj daily W7
méridien adj of noon W7
French: jour n.masc day W7
Italian: diva n.fem goddess; actress, opera singer W7/CID
Old Prussian: deinan n.acc day GED
deiwas n god GED
Lithuanian: dìdis, didì adj great LRC
dienà n.fem day LRC
diẽvas n.masc god LRC
Latvian: dìena n.fem day GED
dievins n.masc god LRC
dievs n.masc god LRC
Old Church Slavonic: dьnь n.masc day LRC
Albanian: diell n.masc sun LRC
ditë n day GED
gdhin vb to pass a sleepless night GED
Mycenaean: δι-ωε n day/god LRC
Homeric Greek: δῆλος adj clear, evident GED
Ζεῦς prop.n.masc Zeus, lit. day/god LRC
Attic: δῆλος adj visible GED
Greek: δέατο vb to appear GED
δῆλος adj clear, obvious LRC
δηλόω vb to reveal, be clear LRC
δῖος adj godlike, noble LRC
Ζεύς prop.n.masc Zeus IEW
Luwian: Tiwat- prop.n sun god LRC
Hittite: Sius prop.n sun god LRC
Palaic: Tiyaz prop.n sun god LRC
Armenian: tiw n day LRC
Avestan: daēva- n demon LRC
Sanskrit: dínam n day GED
dī́deti vb to shine GED
devanāgarī n Devanagari W7
dévas n god GED
dyáus n sky, heavens LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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