Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dēg-   'to take, grab, pack?'

Semantic Field(s): to Take, to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: tacan, tōc, tōcon, tacen vb.str to take W7/ASD
Middle English: mistaken vb to mistake W7
taken vb to take W7
English: mistake, mistook, mistaken vb.str to choose wrongly AHD/W7
take, took, taken vb.str to grasp, seize, get power/control/possession of IEW/W7
weapontake n arming of Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: taken vb to take W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: mistaka vb to mistake, take wrongly W7
taka, tōk vb.str to take, capture IEW/ASD
Icelandic: taka vb to take ASD
Norwegian: taka vb to take CDC
Danish: tage vb to take CDC
undtagen prep except TLL
Swedish: taga vb to take CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: tēkan vb to take, touch IEW
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: tak-, tek- vb to take, touch IEW

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
n=noun
prep=preposition
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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