Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: deik̑-   'to teach, show'

Semantic Field(s): to Show


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: disc n.masc dish, plate, bowl; discus ASD/W7
tā n toe W7
tāc(e)n n sign, token W7
tǣcan vb.wk to teach, show ASD/W7
tēon vb to accuse W7
Middle English: abaten vb to abate W7
avengen vb to avenge W7
benediccioun n benediction W7
bitokenen vb to betoken, signify AHD
condicion n condition W7
dedicate vb to dedicate W7
digit n digit W7
dish n dish W7
ditee n ditty W7
enditen vb to indite W7
entredit n interdict W7
indiccioun n indiction W7
inditen vb to indict W7
judicial adj judicial W7
jug(g)e n judge W7
jug(g)en vb to judge W7
jurisdicciuon n jurisdiction W7
malison n malison W7
prechen vb to preach W7
predicament n predicament W7
prejudice n prejudice W7
revengen vb to revenge W7
techen vb to teach W7
tokne n token W7
vengen vb to avenge W7
verdit(e) n verdict W7
English: abdicate vb to reject, renounce, relinquish (sovereign power) formally AHD/W7
addict vb.trans to devote/surrender (self) to something obsessively/habitually AHD/W7
apodictic adj re: necessary truth/absolute certainty AHD/W7
avenge vb.trans to take revenge for/on behalf of AHD/W7
benediction n invocation of blessing AHD/W7
betoken vb.trans to show, give evidence of AHD/W7
condition n stipulation, premise on which fulfillment of agreement depends AHD/W7
contradict vb.trans to resist/oppose in argument AHD/W7
dedicate adj dedicated AHD/W7
deictic adj showing/pointing out directly AHD/W7
deixis n function of word: specifying referent in context AHD
dicast n ancient Athenian performing as both judge and jury AHD/W7
dictate vb to prescribe, speak authoritatively AHD/W7
diction n verbal description AHD/W7
dictum n authoritative pronouncement AHD/W7
dictyosome n plant cell Golgi apparatus AHD
digit n arabic numeral: 0-9 AHD/W7
discus n disk thrown for distance W7
dish n vessel containing food for consumption CDC
disk n flat circular stone/metal plate AHD/W7
ditto n thing mentioned above/previously AHD/W7
ditty n song/short poem to be sung AHD/W7
edict n official public proclamation having force of law AHD/W7
fatidic adj re: prophecy AHD/W7
Heathertoes prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
index n guide for facilitating book reference AHD/W7
indicate vb.trans to point out/to with exactness AHD/W7
indict vb.trans to accuse, charge with offense AHD/W7
indiction n 15-year cycle: ancient/medieval chronological unit AHD/W7
indite vb.trans to compose, make up AHD/W7
interdict n Roman Catholic ecclesiastical censure AHD/W7
judge n one who judges AHD/W7
judge vb to form authoritative opinion AHD/W7
judicial adj re: judgment/judiciary/administration of justice AHD/W7
juridical adj re: office of judge/administration of justice AHD/W7
jurisdiction n right/power/authority to apply/interpret law AHD/W7
maledict adj.arch accursed AHD/W7
malison n curse, malediction AHD/W7
paradigm n pattern, example AHD/W7
preach vb to deliver a sermon AHD/W7
predicament n status/character/classification assigned by predication AHD/W7
predicate n something affirmed/denied of subject in logical proposition AHD/W7
predicate vb.trans to declare, affirm AHD/W7
predict vb.trans to foretell/declare in advance AHD/W7
prejudice n damage/injury resulting from judgment/action of another AHD/W7
revenge n damage/injury inflicted in return AHD/W7
revenge vb.trans to inflict damage/injury in return AHD/W7
syndic n municipal magistrate AHD/W7
tachisme n art with haphazardly-applied irregular dabs/splotches of color AHD
teach, taught vb to show, instruct, cause to know AHD/W7
tetchy adj testy, peevish AHD
theodicy n defense of God's goodness/omnipotence in view of existence of evil AHD/W7
toe n terminal digit on vertebrate's foot AHD/W7
token n outward sign AHD/W7
valediction n farewell, act/utterance of leave-taking AHD/W7
vendetta n blood feud AHD/W7
verdict n finding/decision of jury AHD/W7
veridical adj veracious, truthful AHD/W7
vindicate vb.trans to avenge, deliver, set free AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: teen n toe TLL
Old High German: tisc n dish, plate, table KDW/W7
zēha n toe W7
zeihhan n sign W7
German: diktieren vb to dictate LRC
Tisch n table TLL
Zehe n.fem toe LRC
Zeichen n.neut sign LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: tá n toe ASD
Danish: taa n toe TLL
Swedish: tå n toe TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: gateihan vb.str.I to tell LRC
táikns n.str.fem sign, wonder LRC
Latin: abdicō, abdicāre, abdicāvī, abdicātus vb to abdicate, disavow, give up W7
addico, addicere, addixi, addictus vb to award, favor W7
apodicticus adj speech that demonstrates W7
benedico, benedicere vb to speak well of W7
condicio, condicionis n.fem terms of agreement, condition W7
condico, condicere vb to agree W7
contradico, contradicere, contradixi, contradictus vb to contradict W7
dēdicō, dēdicāre, dēdicāvī, dēdicātus vb to dedicate W7
dicō, dicāre vb to proclaim, dedicate, consecrate W7
dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictum vb to say, state, declare LRC
dictio, dictionis n.fem speaking, style, oratory W7
dicto, dictare, dictavi, dictatus vb to dictate, say often W7
dictum n.neut something said W7
digitus n.masc finger W7
discus n.masc dish, discus W7
edico, edicere, edixi, edictus vb to decree W7
edictum n.neut edict W7
fatidicus adj annoucing fate, prophetic W7
index, indicis n.masc indicator W7
indicō, indicāre, indicāvī, indicātum vb to indicate, betray LRC
indīco, indīcere, indīxī, indictus vb to announce, proclaim W7
indictio n.fem proclamation W7
interdīcō, interdīcere, interdīxi, interdictum vb to forbid, prohibit LRC
interdictum n.neut prohibition, praetorian interdict W7
jūdex, jūdicis n.masc judge W7
judicialis adj relating to courts of law W7
judicium n.neut judgment W7
jūdicō, jūdicāre vb to judge W7
juridicus adj relating to courts of law W7
jurisdictio, jurisdictionis n.fem administration of justice W7
praejudicium n.neut previous judgment, damage W7
valedico, valedicere, valedixi, valedictus vb to say farewell W7
veridicus adj truthful W7
vindex, vindicis n.masc claimant, avenger W7
vindicō, vindicāre, vindicāvī, vindicātus vb to vindicate, lay claim to W7
vindicta n.fem revenge, vindication W7
Vulgar Latin: indicto, indictare vb to proclaim W7
Late Latin: benedico, benedicere, benedixi, benedictus vb to bless W7
benedictio, benedictionis n.fem blessing, benediction W7
indictio, indictionis n.fem indiction W7
maldictus adj with a spell cast upon W7
maledictio, maledictionis n.fem malediction, spell W7
paradigma n.neut model, paradigm W7
praedicamentum n.neut predicament W7
praedicatum n.neut what was predicated W7
praedicō, praedicāre, praedicāvī, praedicātus vb to preach, assert, predicate logically W7
syndicus n.masc representative of a corporation W7
Medieval Latin: apodixa n.fem receipt W7
Spanish: dicho adj/n said; saying, remark TLL
Old French: avengier vb to avenge CDC
benedicion n benediction AHD
ditié n.fem poem W7
ditier vb to compose W7
enditer vb to write down, proclaim W7
entredit n.masc interdiction W7
jugier vb to judge W7
juridiction n.fem jurisdiction W7
maleïçon n.fem malediction W7
prechier vb to preach W7
prejudice n.masc previous judgment, damage W7
revengier vb to avenge W7
vengier vb to avenge W7
Anglo-French: enditer vb to write down W7
verdit n.masc verdict, saying W7
Middle French: condicion n.fem condition W7
juge n.masc judge W7
revenche, revenge n.fem revenge W7
revenchier, revengier vb to revenge W7
French: syndic n.masc union W7
théodicée n.fem theodicy W7
Italian: detto adj/n said; saying TLL
dire vb to say W7
vendetta n.fem vengeance W7
Greek: ἀδικέω vb to wrong LRC
ἀδικία n.fem wrong-doing LRC
ἀποδείκνυμι vb to propose, demonstrate LRC
apodeiktikos adj speech that demonstrates W7
apodeixis n.fem proof, demonstration W7
ἀπόδεξις n.fem exposition, publication LRC
δείκνυμι vb to show LRC
deiktikos adj deictic W7
deiktos adj verbal W7
dikazein vb to judge W7
δίκαιος adj just, righteous LRC
δικαιοσύνη n.fem justice, righteousness LRC
δικαιόω vb to justify LRC
dikastēs n.masc a judge W7
δίκη n.fem custom, right, judgement LRC
paradeigma n.neut paradigm, model W7
paradeiknynai vb to show side by side W7
syndikos n.masc assistant at law, advocate, representative of a state W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at