Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. dek̑-   'to take'

Semantic Field(s): to Take


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: dech, deg adj.sup best RPN
dess adj (on/toward the) right GED
Welsh: deheu adj (on/toward the) right GED
Old English: discipul n disciple W7
Middle English: ambidexter n double-dealer AHD
condigne adj condign W7
deignen vb to deign W7
deinte n dainty W7
desdeyne n disdain W7
desdeynen vb to disdain W7
destrier n destrier W7
dignete n dignity W7
disciple n disciple W7
discipline n discipline W7
doctour n doctor, teacher W7
doctrine n doctrine W7
document n document W7
indigne adj indign W7
English: ambidextrous adj using either hand with equal ease AHD/W7
condign adj deserved, appropriate AHD/W7
dainty n something delicious to taste AHD/W7
decent adj appropriate AHD/W7
decor n decoration AHD/W7
decorate vb.trans to add honor to AHD/W7
decorous adj correct, marked by propriety/good taste AHD/W7
deign vb to think something appropriate to one's dignity AHD/W7
destrier n war-horse AHD/W7
dexter adj re: right (hand) AHD/W7
dexterity n grace/readiness in physical activity AHD/W7
dextro- pfx re: right (hand) AHD
dignify vb.trans to ennoble, give distinction to AHD/W7
dignity n worthy/honored/esteemed state AHD/W7
diplodocus n very large herbivorous dinosaur AHD/W7
disciple n student who helps spread teacher's doctrines AHD/W7
discipline n instruction AHD/W7
disdain n scorn, feeling of contempt/aversion AHD/W7
disdain vb.trans to look scornfully upon AHD/W7
docent n teacher, lecturer AHD/W7
Docetism prop.n Gnostic doctrine: Jesus had no physical body AHD
docile adj teachable, easily instructed AHD/W7
doctor n eminent theologian declared sound expounder of doctrine AHD/W7
doctrine n teaching, instruction AHD/W7
document n proof, evidence AHD/W7
dogma n doctrine, belief held as established opinion AHD/W7
dogmatic adj re: dogma AHD/CDC
doxology n expression of praise to God AHD/W7
heterodox adj contrary to/different from acknowledged standard AHD/W7
indign adj unworthy, undeserving AHD/W7
indignant adj re: indignation AHD/W7
indignation n anger due to meanness/injustice/unworthiness AHD/W7
orthodox adj conforming to official doctrine AHD/W7
pandect n complete national law code AHD/W7
paradox n tenet contrary to common belief AHD/W7
synecdoche n figure of speech: part for whole or whole for part AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Low Franconian: tesewa n.wk.fem right hand GED
Old High German: gi-zehōn vb to arrange RPN
zes(a)wa n.wk.fem right hand GED
zesawēr adj right GED
zeso adj right GED
German: Dozent n.masc docent W7
East Germanic  
Gothic: *taihswa adj/n.fem right; right hand/side GED
Latin: condignus adj very worthy W7
decens, decentis adj/vb.ptc fitting W7
deceō, decēre vb to be fitting, proper W7
decor, decoris n.masc beauty, grace W7
decoro, decorare, decoravi, decoratus vb to adorn W7
decorus adj graceful, beautiful W7
decus n.neut honor, distinction W7
dexter adj to the right W7
dexteritas, dexteritatis n.fem dexterity W7
dextra, dextrae n.fem right hand LRC
dignitas, dignitatis n.fem dignity, worth W7
dignō, dignāre vb to deign, consider worthy W7
dignus adj worthy W7
disciplina, disciplinae n.fem learning, discipline, education LRC
discipulus n.masc pupil W7
discō, discere, didicī, - vb to learn LRC
docens, docentis vb.ptc re: one who teaches W7
doceō, docēre, docuī, doctum vb to teach LRC
docilis adj docile W7
doctor, doctoris n.masc teacher LRC
doctrina, doctrinae n.fem doctrine, what is taught LRC
doctus, docta, doctum adj learned LRC
documentum n.neut lesson, proof W7
dogma, dogmatis n.neut theory, belief W7
indignans, indignantis adj/vb.ptc indignant W7
indignor, indignari vb.dep to be indignant W7
indignus adj unworthy W7
pandectes n.masc encyclopedic work W7
paradoxum n.neut paradox W7
Vulgar Latin: disdigno, disdignāre vb to disdain W7
Late Latin: ambidexter adj ambidextrous W7
dignifico, dignificāre vb to dignify W7
discipulus n.masc follower of Jesus Christ in his lifetime W7
documentum n.neut official paper W7
heterodoxus adj heterodox, with different doctrine/opinion W7
orthodoxus adj orthodox, following strict beliefs W7
Pandectae the Pandects, digest of Roman civil law (6th century A.D.) W7
Medieval Latin: doctor n.masc doctor, teacher W7
doxologia n.fem doxology W7
New Latin: diplodocus n.masc Diplodocus (kind of dinosaur) W7
Old French: deignier vb to deign W7
desciple n.masc disciple W7
desdeign n.masc contempt W7
desdeignier vb to disdain W7
destre adj/n.masc/fem right hand W7
destrier adj right-handed W7
digneté, deintié n.fem dignity, worth W7
Middle French: condigne adj very worhty W7
décent adj fitting W7
desdeignier vb to disdain W7
dexterité, dexterity n.fem dexterity W7
dignifier vb to dignify W7
discipline n.fem teaching, learning, discipline W7
doctour n.masc doctor, teacher W7
doctrine n.fem doctrine, teachings of a doctor W7
document n.masc official paper W7
indigne adj indign, not worthy W7
orthodoxe adj orthodox W7
French: décor n.masc decor W7
décorer vb to decorate W7
Lithuanian: dẽšinas adj right GED
dešinė n right hand GED
Old Church Slavonic: desnъ adj right GED
Albanian: djathtë adj (on/toward the) right GED
Mycenaean: de-ki-si-wo adj (on/toward the) right GED
Homeric Greek: δεξιή n.fem right hand GED
δεξιός adj (on/toward the) right GED
δεξιτερός adj right GED
δοκέω vb to seem, think, fancy LRC
δοκός n.masc beam LRC
δόξα n.fem view, opinion, expectation LRC
Greek: δεκτός adj acceptable RPN
dechesthai vb to receive W7
δέχομαι vb to receive LRC
διδάσκαλος n.masc teacher LRC
διδάσκω vb to teach LRC
διδαχή n.fem teaching LRC
δόγμα n.neut decree, belief, theory, opinion LRC
ekdechesthai vb to receive, understand W7
ekdochē n.fem sense, interpretation W7
heterodoxos adj with a different opinion or belief W7
εὐδοκία n.fem satisfaction LRC
pandektēs adj all-receiving W7
paradoxon n.neut paradox W7
paradoxos adj contrary to expectation W7
synekdochē n.fem figure of speech in which part is used for whole W7
Late Greek: doxologia n.fem examination of other's opinions W7
orthodoxos adj orthodox, with a right opinion W7
Classical Armenian: tesanem vb to see LRC
Avestan: dašinō adj right GED
Sanskrit: dákṣa-ḥ adj fit, able, clever RPN
dákṣinas adj right GED
daśasyáti vb to serve, oblige, honor RPN
dasā́ n condition, circumstance RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at