Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. del-   'to tell, count, calculate'

Semantic Field(s): Account, Reckoning


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: getæl adj quick, ready W7
talu n tale W7
tellan vb.wk to tell ASD/W7
Middle English: tale n tale W7
talken vb to talk W7
tall adj tall W7
tellen vb to tell W7
English: dolerite n coarse basalts AHD/W7
sedulous adj assiduous, diligent in pursuit/application AHD/W7
tale n talk, discourse AHD/W7
talk vb to utter, express/deliver in speech AHD/W7
tall adj brave/courageous AHD/W7
tell, told vb to count, tally, enumerate AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: tale n.fem tale, (legal) case ASD
tella vb to tell, state, recount, narrate ASD
Dutch: tellen vb to tell TLL
Old Saxon: gēr-tala n.fem tale, talk, story, account ASD
tellian vb to tell, state, recount, narrate ASD
Old High German: gizal adj quick W7
zala n.fem number, series, computation, enumeration ASD
zellen vb to tell, count W7
German: erzälen vb to tell: relate LRC
zählen vb to tell: count LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: tal n.neut list, enumeration; conversation LRC
tala(ð) vb to talk, speak; (recip.) discuss, converse LRC
telja, talða vb to tell, reckon; trace; recount; declare LRC
Icelandic: tala n.fem tale, talk, number ASD
telja vb to tell, state, recount, narrate ASD
Latin: dolus n.masc guile, deceit W7
sedulō adv sincerely, diligently W7
sedulus adj sincere, diligent W7
Homeric Greek: δόλιος adj deceitful, deceiving LRC
δόλος n.masc bait, trick, deceit LRC
Greek: doleros adj deceitful W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at