Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dek̑m̥, dek̑m̥-t, dek̑u-   'ten, decade'

Semantic Field(s): Number


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cēt nbr.card hundred (100) EIE
dechmad nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
deich nbr.card ten (10) GED
Irish: deich nbr.card ten (10) LRC
Scots Gaelic: deich nbr.card ten (10) LRC
Manx: jeih nbr.card ten (10) LRC
Welsh: cant nbr.card hundred (100) EIE
dec nbr.card ten (10) GED
Gaulish: decametos nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
Old English: eahtatīene nbr.card eighteen (8 + 10) W7
fēowertīene nbr.card fourteen (4 + 10) W7
fēowertig nbr.card forty (40) GED
fēowertȳne nbr.card fourteen (4 + 10) GED
fīftēne nbr.card fifteen (5 + 10) W7
hund nbr.card/n.neut hundred (100) W7
hundred nbr.card hundred (100), long hundred (120) EIE
nigontīene nbr.card nineteen (9 + 10) W7/ASD
pentecosten n.masc Pentecost W7/ASD
seofontēne nbr.card seventeen (7 + 10) W7
siex-hund nbr.card six hundred (600) LRC
sixtȳne, sixtīne nbr.card sixteen (6 + 10) W7/ASD
-tēne card.sfx -teen GED
teo(ge)þa nbr.ord tenth (10th) W7/ASD
teo(go)þian vb to tithe W7
tēon, tīen(e) nbr.card ten (10) GED
tēoþa nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
teoþung n.fem one tenth (1/10) LRC
-tīene card.sfx -teen GED
tīen(e) nbr.card ten (10) W7
þrēotīne nbr.card thirteen (3 + 10) W7
Middle English: deca- pfx deca- W7
decade n decade W7
Decembre prop.n December W7
deen n dean W7
denarius n denarius W7
denere n denier W7
dime n dime W7
dozeine n dozen W7
dyker n dicker W7
eightetene nbr.card eighteen (8 + 10) W7
fiftene nbr.card fifteen (5 + 10) W7
fourtene nbr.card fourteen (4 + 10) W7
hundred nbr.card hundred (100) W7
nynetene nbr.card nineteen (9 + 10) W7
Pentecost prop.n Pentecost W7
seventene nbr.card seventeen (7 + 10) W7
sixtene nbr.card sixteen (6 + 10) W7
ten nbr.card ten (10) W7
thrittene nbr.card thirteen (3 + 10) W7
tithe n tithe W7
tithen vb to tithe W7
English: cent n 1/100th of basic monetary unit AHD/W7
cental n short hundredweight AHD/W7
centas n Lithuanian currency unit AHD
centavo n 1/100th of basic monetary unit AHD/W7
centenarian adj/n (re:) centennial, 100-year-old AHD
centenary adj centennial AHD/W7
centennial n 100th anniversary (celebration) AHD/W7
centesimal adj re: division into hundredths AHD/W7
centi- pfx hundred AHD/W7
centime n 1/100th of basic monetary unit AHD/W7
centner n Germanic unit of weight AHD/W7
centum adj re: IE language group in which palatal stops did not become palatal/alveolar fricatives AHD/W7
century n group/set of 100 AHD/W7
cinquecento n 16th century, esp. re: Italian art AHD/W7
dean n head of chapter of collegiate/cathedral church AHD/W7
deca- pfx ten AHD/W7
decade n group/set of 10 AHD/W7
decagon n polygon of 10 sides/angles AHD/W7
Decalogue prop.n the Ten Commandments AHD
December prop.n 12th month (in Gregorian calendar) LRC
decennary adj/n (re:) decennium AHD
decennium n 10-year period AHD/W7
deci- pfx tenth part AHD/W7
decimal adj numbered/proceeding by tens AHD/W7
decimate vb.trans to select/kill every 10th man AHD/W7
decussate vb to intersect AHD/W7
denarius n small silver Roman coin AHD/W7
denary adj tenfold, containing ten AHD/CDC
denier n small silver coin of France/western Europe AHD/W7
dicker n number/quantity of 10, esp. hides/skins AHD/W7
dime n small silver U.S. coin worth 1/10 dollar AHD/W7
dinar n Arab/Damascan gold coin AHD/CDC
dodecagon n polygon of 12 sides/angles AHD/W7
doyen n senior man in group AHD/W7
dozen n twelve (12) AHD/W7
duodecimal adj re: 12, scale of twelves AHD/W7
eighteen nbr.card 18 AHD/W7
fifteen nbr.card 15 AHD/W7
fourteen nbr.card 14 AHD/W7
hect(o)- pfx hundred AHD
hundred nbr.card 100 AHD/W7
nineteen nbr.card 19 AHD/W7
nonagenarian n person in his/her nineties AHD/W7
octodecimo n eighteenmo: 1/18th sheet of paper AHD/W7
octogenarian n person in his/her eighties AHD/W7
Pentecost prop.n Judeo-Christian feast day, lit. 50th AHD/W7
percent adv of each hundred AHD/W7
qindarka Albanian currrency units AHD
quadricentenary n/adj fourth centennial; re: 400 years AHD
quattrocento n 15th century, esp. re: Italian art/literature AHD/W7
quincentenary n/adj fifth centennial; re: 500 years AHD
quindecennial adj re: 15-year period AHD
quinquagenarian n person in his/her fifties AHD
quintal n 1/10 metric ton AHD/W7
satem adj re: IE language group in which palatal stops became palatal/alveolar fricatives AHD/W7
seicento n 17th century AHD/W7
sen n cent, monetary unit AHD
seniti n cent, monetary unit AHD
Septuagint prop.n Greek Old Testament, lit. seventy (translators) LRC
seventeen nbr.card 17 AHD/W7
sextodecimo n sixteenmo: 1/16th sheet of paper AHD/W7
sixteen nbr.card 16 AHD/W7
stotinka n Bulgarian currency unit AHD
ten nbr.card 10 AHD/W7
tenfold adj 10 times the number/quantity LRC
tenth nbr.ord 10th LRC
thirteen nbr.card 13 AHD/W7
tithe n 1/10 part paid as religious contribution AHD/W7
tithe vb to give 1/10 part esp. for church support AHD/W7
trecento n 14th century AHD/W7
triskaidekaphobia n abnormal fear of number 13 AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fiortig nbr.card forty (40) GED
fiuwertich nbr.card forty (40) GED
fiūwertīne nbr.card fourteen (4 + 10) GED
hund nbr.card hundred (100) ASD
hundred, hunderd nbr.card hundred (100) ASD
tian nbr.card ten (10) GED
tianda nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
-tine card.sfx -teen GED
Dutch: honderd nbr.card hundred (100) LRC
tien nbr.card ten (10) LRC
Old Saxon: hund nbr.card hundred (100) ASD
hunderod nbr.card hundred (100), long hundred (120) EIE
tehan nbr.card ten (10) GED
tehando nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
tehan-fald adj ten-fold GED
-tein card.sfx -teen GED
Middle Low German: tegede n tenth W7
Old High German: fiorzehan nbr.card fourteen (4 + 10) GED
fiorzug nbr.card forty (40) GED
hund, hunt nbr.card hundred (100) IEW/EIE
hundert nbr.card hundred (100) ASD
-zehan card.sfx -teen GED
zehan nbr.card ten (10) GED
zehanto nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
zēnfalt adj ten-fold GED
Middle High German: hundert nbr.card hundred (100) IEW
techer n dicker W7
German: achzehn nbr.card eighteen (18) LRC
dreizehn nbr.card thirteen (13) LRC
Dutzend n.neut dozen LRC
fünfzehn nbr.card fifteen (15) LRC
hundert nbr.card hundred (100) LRC
neunzehn nbr.card nineteen (19) LRC
sechzehn nbr.card sixteen (16) LRC
siebzehn nbr.card seventeen (17) LRC
vierzehn nbr.card fourteen (14) LRC
zehn nbr.card ten (10) GED
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hund-raþ nbr.card hundred (100), long hundred (120) W7/EIE
Old Icelandic: fjōrirtiger nbr.card forty (40) GED
fjōrtān nbr.card fourteen (4 + 10) GED
tīu nbr.card ten (10) GED
tīund nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
-tjān card.sfx -teen GED
Icelandic: hundr nbr.card hundred (100) ASD
hundrað nbr.card hundred (100) ASD
Danish: hundrede nbr.card hundred (100) LRC
ti nbr.card ten (10) LRC
Swedish: hundra nbr.card hundred (100) LRC
tio nbr.card ten (10) LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: fidwor-taihun nbr.card fourteen (4 + 10) GED
*fidwor-tigjus nbr.card forty (40) GED
*fimf-taihun nbr.card fifteen (5 + 10) GED
hund(a) nbr.card/ hundred (100) GED/ASD
taihun nbr.card ten (10) GED
taíhuntēhund nbr.card hundred (100) LRC
Crimean Gothic: *fiirdeiþien, furdei-thien nbr.card forty (40), lit. fourth ten CGo/GED
sada nbr.card hundred (100) CGo
*treiþien, treithyen nbr.card thirty (30), lit. third ten CGo
*þiine, thiine nbr.card ten (10) GED
*þiinetria, thune-tria nbr.card thirteen (10 + 3) CGo/GED
*þiinetua, thune-tua nbr.card twelve (10 + 2) CGo/GED
*þiinita, thiin-ita nbr.card eleven (10 + 1) GED
Umbrian: dequrier n decade GED
tekuries n decade GED
Latin: centenarius adj of a hundred W7
centeni adv one hundred each W7
centesimus nbr.ord hundredth W7
centi- pfx hundred (100) W7
centum nbr.card.indec hundred (100) W7
centuria n.fem century, 100 soldiers W7
decem nbr.card ten (10) GED
December prop.n.masc December, tenth month (in Roman calendar) W7
decimo, decimare, decimavi, decimatus vb to take a tithe/tenth W7
decimus, decima, decimum adj/nbr.ord tithe, 1/10 part; tenth (10th) GED
decuria n.fem decade, group/quantity of ten GED
decussis n.masc number ten, numeral X, intersection W7
decussō, decussāre, decussavi, decussātus vb to cross in the shape of an X W7
denarius n.masc containing ten; coin worth ten asses W7
deni adv ten each W7
duodecim nbr.card twelve (2 + 10) W7
-ginta sfx multiplied by ten W7
nonageni adv ninety each W7
nonaginta nbr.card ninety (90) W7
octodecim nbr.card eighteen (8 + 10) W7
octodecimus nbr.ord eighteenth W7
octogenarius adj containing eighty W7
octogeni adv eighty each W7
octoginta nbr.card eighty (80) W7
septuaginta n/nbr.card Septuagint; seventy (70) W7
vicenus, viceni adj twenty LRC
vicesimus, vicesima, vicesimum nbr.ord twentieth LRC
viginti nbr.card twenty (20) W7
Late Latin: centenarium n.neut centenary W7
decanus n.masc dean, chief of ten W7
decas, decadis n.fem decade W7
pentecoste n.fem Pentecost W7
septuaginta n/nbr.card Septuagint; seventy (70) W7
Medieval Latin: decimalis adj re: tithe W7
New Latin: decagonum n.neut decagon W7
decimalis adj re: tithe, tenth month W7
Portuguese: centavo n.masc type of coin W7
dez nbr.card ten TLL
Spanish: diez nbr.card ten TLL
Old French: Decembre prop.n.masc December W7
dozaine n.fem dozen W7
doze nbr.card twelve (12) W7
Middle French: cent nbr.card hundred (100) W7
décade n.fem decade W7
deien n.masc dean W7
denier n.masc coin W7
dime n.fem a tithe W7
French: centi- pfx hundred W7
centime n.masc centime, 1/100 of a franc (French monetary unit) W7
déci- pfx tenth W7
dix nbr.card ten TLL
doyen n.masc dean W7
Italian: cinquecènto nbr.card five hundred (500) W7/CID
dieci nbr.card ten TLL
quattrocènto nbr.card four hundred (400) W7
seicènto nbr.card six hundred (600) W7
trecènto nbr.card three hundred (300) W7
Old Prussian: dessīmts nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
Lithuanian: -dešimt card.sfx -ty GED
dešim̃tas nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
dẽšimt(is) n decade GED
dešimtìs nbr.card ten (10) GED
šim̃tas nbr.card hundred (100) LRC
Latvian: desmitais nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
desmits nbr.card ten (10) GED
sìmts nbr.card hundred (100) EIE
Old Church Slavonic: desętъ card.sfx -ty GED
desętъ nbr.card ten (10) GED
desętь n decade GED
desętь nbr.card ten (10) LRC
desętь nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
sŭto nbr.card hundred (100) EIE
Bulgarian: sto nbr.card hundred (100) EIE
stotinka n stotinka AHD
Albanian: dhjetë nbr.card ten (10) GED
Greek: δέκᾰ nbr.card ten (10) GED
dekagōnon n.neut decagon W7
δεκάς n.fem decade, group of ten GED
δέκατος nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
δώδεκα nbr.card twelve (2 + 10) LRC
dōdekagōnon n.neut dodecagon W7
ἑκατόν nbr.card hundred (100) LRC
-konta pfx multiplied by ten W7
pentēkonta nbr.card fifty (50) W7
pentēkostē n.fem Pentecost, fiftieth day W7
pentēkostos nbr.ord fiftieth (50th) W7
τεσσεράκοντα nbr.card forty (40) GED
Lycian: sñta n unit of ten/hundred (10/100) EIE
Classical Armenian: tasn nbr.card ten (10) GED
Avestan: dasəmō nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
satəm nbr.card hundred (100) EIE
Sanskrit: dáśa nbr.card ten (10) GED
daśát- nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
daśát(iṣ) n decade GED
daśamá nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
śatám nbr.card hundred (100) EIE
Tocharian B: känte, kante nbr.card hundred (100) IEW/EIE
śak nbr.card ten (10) GED
śkante nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED
Tocharian A: känt nbr.card hundred (100) EIE
śäk nbr.card ten (10) GED
skänt nbr.ord tenth (10th) GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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