Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. del-   'long'

Semantic Field(s): Long


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: dal(a) vb to hold GED
Old English: andlang prep along ASD/W7
lang adj long LRC
langian vb to long, yearn W7
lengan vb.wk to lengthen, prolong ASD/W7
len(g)ten, lencten n.masc Lent ASD/W7
lengþu n length W7
tulge, tylg adv rather GED
Middle English: along adv along W7
belongen vb to belong W7
eloynen vb to eloign W7
lang adj long W7
lengen vb to prolong W7
lengeren vb.freq to dwell W7
lengthe n length W7
lente n springtime, Lent W7
ling n ling (fish) W7
long adj long W7
longen vb to be suitable W7
longitude n longitude W7
Lumbarde prop.n Lombard W7
oblong adj oblong W7
prolongen vb to prolong W7
purloinen vb to put away, render ineffectual W7
English: along adv/prep in same direction, in line parallel with length AHD/W7
belong vb.intrans to be suitable/appropriate/advantageous AHD/W7
dolichocephalic adj re: relatively long head AHD/W7
dolichocranial adj having relatively long skull AHD
eloign vb.trans to remove to distant/unknown place AHD/W7
elongate vb to extend in length AHD/W7
indulge vb to give free choice to AHD/W7
Langstrand prop.n Gondor coast in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
length n longer/longest dimension of object AHD/W7
Lent prop.n Christian period of penitence before Easter LRC
ling n fish in cod family AHD/W7
linger vb to tarry, be slow to leave AHD/W7
Lombard prop.n member of Teutonic peoples who invaded/settled N. Italy in 568 A.D. AHD/W7
long adj extending for significant distance AHD/W7
long vb.intrans to yearn, feel strong desire/craving AHD/W7
longeron n major fore-aft structural member of aircraft fuselage AHD
longhorn n Texas cattle breed LRC
longitude n length AHD/W7
Longshanks prop.n epithet for Strider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
longshore adj re: seacoast location AHD
lounge n public waiting room AHD
lunge n sudden forward thrust/movement AHD
oblong adj deviating from square/circular shape through elongation AHD/W7
prolong vb.trans to continue, lengthen in time AHD/W7
purloin vb to filch, appropriate wrongfully AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: langs prep along TLL
leng n ling (fish) W7
Old Saxon: tulgo adv very GED
Old High German: lang adj long W7
langēn vb to long W7
lengiz, lenzo n Lent, spring ASD
lengjan vb to lengthen, prolong ASD
lenzin n spring W7
German: lang adj long LRC
Länge n.fem length TLL
längs prep along TLL
Lenz n.masc Lent, spring ASD
verlängern vb to lengthen LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: lengja vb to lengthen, prolong ASD
Danish: langs prep along TLL
Swedish: längs prep along TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-tulgjan vb.wk.I to fortify GED
tulgiþa n firmness, certainty; safety, stronghold ASD/GED
tulgjan vb.wk.I to confirm, fortify ASD/GED
tulgus adj firm, steady, steadfast GED
Latin: indulgeo, indulgēre vb to indulge, grant as a favor GED
Langobardus n.masc Longobard W7
longe adv by far LRC
longitudo, longitudinis n.fem length W7
longus adj long W7
oblongus adj oblong W7
Late Latin: ēlongo, ēlongāre, ēlongāvī, ēlongātus vb to make long W7
prolongo, prolongāre vb to prolong W7
New Latin: dolich- pfx spear W7
dolichocephalus adj dolichocephalic W7
Portuguese: longo adj long TLL
Old French: esloigner vb to put further away, to scare away W7
loing adv far, at a distance W7
porloigner vb to delay, put off W7
Anglo-French: purloigner vb to delay, put off W7
Middle French: lombard adj Lombard W7
prolonguer vb to prolong W7
French: allonger vb to extend, prolong, lengthen; lay down AHD
alongier vb to extend, prolong, lengthen; lay down AHD
éloigner vb to scare away, put further away W7
long adj long TLL
Old Italian: lombardo adj Lombard W7
Italian: lungo adj/prep long; along TLL
Lithuanian: ìlgas, ilgà adj long LRC
Latvian: ilgi adj/adv long, for a long time LRC
Old Church Slavonic: dlъgъ adj long GED/RPN
dlъžǫ, dlъžiti vb to extend RPN
Greek: δολιχός adj long GED
ἐνδελεχής adj perpetual, continuous GED/RPN
Hittite: da-lu-ga-aš-ti n length GED/RPN
da-lu-ga-e-eš adj long RPN
ta-lu-ki-(i)š-zi to become long RPN
Old Persian: darga- adj long GED
Avestan: darəgō adj long GED
drājō n length GED
Sanskrit: dīrghá-ḥ adj long, tall, deep GED/RPN
drā́ghate vb to stretch, lengthen GED/RPN
drāgh(i)mān n length RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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