Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dem-, demə-   'to build, timber; house, domicile'

Semantic Field(s): to Build, House


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: timber n wood, building, structure GED
timbran, timbrede, timbred vb.wk.I to timber LRC
timbr(i)an n.str.neut building, material GED
toft n toft W7
Middle English: beldam n grandmother, old woman W7
dam(e) n dam, dame, lady W7
Dan prop.n Dan W7
daunger n danger W7
dominioun n dominion W7
donjon n dungeon W7
madam(e) n madam AHD/W7
timber n timber W7
toft n toft W7
English: beldam n old woman AHD/W7
belladonna n European poisonous plant AHD/W7
dam n female parent W7
dame n woman of rank/station/authority AHD/W7
Dan prop.n.dim male nickname for Daniel AHD/W7
danger n jurisdiction AHD/W7
Despina prop.n satellite of Neptune AHD
despot n Byzantine emperor/prince AHD/W7
Dom prop.n.dim male nickname for Dominic LRC
domain n absolute ownership of land AHD/W7
dome n mansion, stately building AHD/W7
domestic adj re: household/family AHD/W7
domicile n house, abode, place of individual/family residence AHD/W7
dominate vb to rule AHD/W7
dominical adj re: Jesus Christ as Lord AHD/W7
dominie n pedagogue AHD/W7
dominion n sovereignty, supreme authority AHD/W7
domino n long loose hooded cloak, part of masquerade costume AHD/W7
don n Spanish nobleman/gentleman AHD/W7
Donna prop.n female given name AHD
duende n attraction by personal charm/magnetism AHD
dungeon n donjon (massive tower) AHD/W7
Madam prop.n My Lady [title for married woman] AHD
madam n lady AHD/W7
Madonna prop.n Christian title of Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus LRC
predominate vb to prevail, exert controlling power/influence AHD/W7
timber n (wood from) growing trees AHD/W7
timber vb to build/construct with timber W7
toft n site for dwelling and outbuildings AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: timber n.neut timber, material; building, structure ASD/GED
timbra, timmera vb to timber ASD
timbria, timmeria vb.wk to timber GED
Dutch: timmeren vb to timber ASD
Old Saxon: ge-timbrōn vb to timber ASD
timbar n timber; building, structure GED
timbrian, timbrōn vb.wk to timber GED
timbro, timmero n timberer, carpenter GED
Old Low German: ge-timbran vb to timber ASD
timbar n.neut timber, material ASD
Old High German: zimbar n.neut timber; room, building ASD/W7
zimbaren, zimbaron vb.wk to timber GED
zimber n.str.neut timber, material; building GED
German: Dame n.fem dame, lady LRC
Domizil n.neut domicile LRC
Zimmer n.neut room, chamber LRC
Zimmermann n.masc carpenter, lit. timber-man LRC
zimmern vb to timber, carpenter LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: timbra, timbrað vb to timber LRC
topt n site for homestead W7
Old Icelandic: timbr(a) n timber; building, structure GED
topt n.fem site, homestead GED
Icelandic: timbr n.neut timber, material ASD
timbra vb to timber ASD
Danish: dame n dame, lady TLL
tømre vb to timber ASD
Swedish: dam n dame, lady TLL
tomt n site, homestead GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: *ana-timrjan vb.wk.I to build upon GED
*ga-timrjan vb.wk.I to build up GED
*ga-timrjo n.fem building, structure GED
timreins n.fem building, edification GED
timrja n.masc timberer, carpenter GED
*timrjan vb.wk.I to timber, build (up), edify GED
Latin: domesticus, domestica, domesticum adj domestic, re: domicile LRC
domicilium n.neut domicile, one's house W7
domina n.fem dame, lady, mistress W7
dominicus adj of a lord W7
dominium n.neut domain, ownership W7
dominor, dominari, dominatus vb to rule, govern W7
dominus, domini n.masc lord, master LRC
domus, domī n.fem house, dwelling LRC
domus, domūs n.fem house, dwelling GED
ēdomō, edomāre, edomuī, ēdomitum vb to conquer, subdue LRC
Vulgar Latin: dominiarium n.neut ownership W7
*dominicella n.fem.dim young lady AHD
Late Latin: dominicalis adj of Sunday W7
dominicus adj of Sunday W7
Medieval Latin: dominio, dominionis n.masc lord W7
domnus n.masc master W7
domus n.fem church, house W7
praedominor, praedomināri vb.dep to predominate W7
Spanish: don n.masc lord, master W7
Old French: dame n.fem dame, lady, mistress W7
damisele n.fem young lady AHD
dongier, dangier n.masc danger, power, domination W7
Middle French: Dan n.masc title of member of religious order W7
despote n.masc tyrant W7
domaine, demaine n.masc domain W7
domestique adj re: house W7
domicile n.masc one's house W7
dominion n.masc dominion, empire W7
donjon n.masc dungeon W7
French: dôme n.masc dome, cathedral W7
domino n.masc domino, board game W7
madame n.fem madam AHD
mademoiselle n.fem girl, lit. my young lady AHD
American French: Madame prop.n.fem Madam AHD
Mademoiselle prop.n.fem Miss, My Young Lady [title for girl/unmarried woman] AHD
Italian: belladònna n.fem belladonna, deadly nightshade CID/W7
duomo n.masc cathedral W7
Madonna n.fem the Madonna, Saint Mary; Lady [title of nobility] W7
Lithuanian: dimstis n estate, farmstead GED
nãmas n house, dwelling GED
Old Church Slavonic: doma adv at home LRC
domašьnь adj domestic, re: the household LRC
domъ n.masc house GED
Homeric Greek: δάπεδον n floor, leveled ground GED
δόμος n.masc home, house, course of bricks GED
δῶ n.neut house, dwelling GED
Greek: δέμας n form, body, stature GED
δέμω vb to join, build, construct GED
δεσπότης n.masc despot, lord (of the house) GED
δῶμα n.neut home, house, building GED
ἐποικοδομεῖν vb to build upon GED
οἰκοδομεῖν vb to build (up), strengthen, edify, benefit GED
Classical Armenian: tun n house GED
Avestan: dam- n house GED
dəmąna- n.neut house, building GED
nmāna- n.neut house, building GED
Sanskrit: dám- n house, dwelling GED
dám-pati- n lord of the house GED
mā́na- n.masc house, building GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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