Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: demə-, domə-, domə-   'to tame'

Semantic Field(s): Animal


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: damnain vb to tie up LRC
Middle Irish: damnaim vb to tame GED
Gaulish: dāma, damma n deer GED
Old English: dā n.fem (female) deer GED
tam adj tame GED
temmian vb.wk to tame GED
Middle English: adamant n adamant W7
daunten vb to daunt W7
diamaunde n diamond W7
tame adj tame W7
English: adamant n stone believed to be impenetrably hard AHD/W7
daunt vb.trans to intimidate, lessen courage AHD/W7
diamond n crystalline carbon: hardest known substance AHD/W7
doe n (female) deer GED
indomitable adj unconquerable, incapable of being subdued AHD/W7
tame adj domesticated, reduced from native state of wildness AHD/W7
tame vb to subdue, train for the household GED
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: tam adj tame GED
tema vb.wk to tame GED
Middle Low German: tam adj tame GED
temmen vb.wk to tame GED
Old High German: zam adj tame GED
zemman, zamōn vb.wk to tame GED
zemmen vb to tame LRC
German: Diamant n.masc diamond LRC
zahm adj tame LRC
zähmen vb to tame LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: tamr adj tame GED
temja vb.wk to tame GED
Icelandic: temja vb to tame ASD
Danish: daa n doe ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-tamjan vb.wk.I to tame GED
Latin: adamas, adamantis n.masc hardest metal, diamond W7
domitō, domitāre, domitāvī, domitātus vb.freq to tame, break in W7
domō, domāre, domuī, domitus vb to tame, tie up, domesticate GED
Late Latin: diamas, diamantis n.masc diamond W7
indomitabilis adj indomitable W7
Old French: adamant n.masc hardest metal, diamond W7
danter, donter vb to tame W7
Middle French: diamant n.masc diamond W7
Homeric Greek: δαμνάω vb to tame LRC
δάμνημι vb to tame GED
Greek: δαμάλης n young steer GED
δάμαλις n heifer GED
*δᾰμάω vb to tame GED
δμώς n slave GED
Hittite: damas- vb to push, press GED
New Persian: dām n tamed animal GED
Ossetic: domun vb to tame LRC
Sanskrit: damáyati vb to subdue GED
dámas n act of taming GED
dāmyáti vb to tame, tie up GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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