Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. der-, drā-, dreb-, drem-, dreu-   'to run, trip, tread, tramp'

Semantic Field(s): to Run, to Walk, to Drop, Foot


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: tredan, træd, trǣdon, treden vb.str to tread ASD/GED
treddan vb.wk to tread, trample ASD/GED
treddian vb.wk to tread GED
tredel n.masc step, sole ASD/GED
trem, trym n.neut step GED
treppan vb to tread W7
treppe n.fem trap W7
trod(u) n.neut/fem track GED
Middle English: dromedarie n dromedary W7
dromond n dromond W7
titeren vb to totter, reel W7
trade n trade W7
trampen vb to tramp W7
tramplen vb.freq to trample W7
trap n snare, pitfall W7
tredel n treadle, stairstep W7
treden vb to tread W7
trippen vb to trip W7
trot n trot W7
English: anadromous adj ascending rivers from sea for breeding AHD/W7
-drome n.sfx field, (race)course, arena AHD
dromedary n speedy camel, bred/trained for riding AHD/W7
dromond n large fast medieval galley/cutter AHD/W7
-dromous adj.sfx running AHD/W7
entrap vb.trans to catch (as if) in trap AHD/W7
loxodrome n rhumb line AHD/W2I
palindrome n text spelled the same backward/forward AHD/W7
prodromal adj precursory, marked by prodromes W7
prodrome n premonitory symptom of disease AHD/W7
teeter vb.intrans to wobble, move unsteadily AHD/W7
trade n way, path traversed AHD/W7
tramp vb to walk/tread/step (esp. heavily) AHD/W7
trample vb to tramp repeatedly IEW
trampoline n resilient canvas web/sheet held in frame by springs AHD/W7
trap n snare/device for taking game/other animals AHD/W7
trap n fine-grained igneous rocks (e.g. basalt/amygdaloid) AHD/W7
tread, trod, trodden vb.str to step/walk on/over AHD/W7
treadle n swiveling lever pressed by foot to drive machine AHD/W7
trip vb to skip/dance/caper with quick light steps AHD/W7
troll n giant inhabiting hills/caves (Teutonic folklore) W7
troll-fells n rocky troll locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
trot n moderately fast gait (legs of quadruped move in diagonal pairs) AHD/W7
wentletrap n marine snail with white shell AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: treda vb.str to tread, trample upon GED
treppe n step ASD
Middle Dutch: trappe n.fem trap, stair W7
treden vb.str to tread GED
wendeltrappe n winding stair W7
Dutch: trap n stairs TLL
trappen vb to tread, trample ASD
wenteltrap n winding stair W7
Old Saxon: trada n track, treading GED
Old Low German: tredan, tretan vb to tread (down), trample upon ASD
Middle Low German: trade n track, treading GED
trampen vb to tramp, stamp W7
trappe n.fem trap, stair W7
treden vb.str to tread GED
Old High German: trapo n.fem trap ASD
trata n track, course, treading GED
tretan vb.str to tread GED
trettōn vb to tread, trample upon ASD
trota n.wk.fem wine-press GED
trotōn vb.wk to press GED
trottōn vb to tread W7
zittarōn vb to shiver, tremble GED
Middle High German: treten vb.str to tread GED
trol(le) n.masc troll, goblin, monster IEW
trot(t)e n.wk.fem wine-press GED
German: Trampolin n.fem trampoline LRC
Treppe n.fem step, stairs, staircase ASD
treten vb to tread LRC
trotten vb to trot LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: troll n.neut troll, fiend, demon, monster IEW/W7
trolldómr n witchcraft OED
Old Icelandic: (a-)troð n treading GED
titra vb to tremble GED
treðja vb to tread upon, trample GED
troða, trað vb.str to tread GED
trǫð n.fem cow-pen, fenced lane GED
Icelandic: tratta vb to tread (under foot), trample upon ASD
troð n.neut treading ASD
troða vb to tread (down), trample upon ASD
Norwegian: troll n troll, dwarf W7
Danish: trappe n stairs TLL
trold n troll, imp, dwarf OED/W7
Swedish: trapp(a) n step, stair W7
troll n troll, imp, dwarf OED
trolla vb to charm, bewitch OED
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-trudan vb.str.IV to tread down GED
trudan vb.str.IV to tread, trample upon GED
Late Latin: dromo, dromonis n.masc light ship W7
New Latin: -dromus sfx -dromous, re: running W7
Spanish: trampolín n.masc trampoline W7
Middle French: dromedaire n.masc dromedary W7
dromont n.masc dromond W7
entraper vb to entrap W7
trape n.fem trap W7
trot n.masc trot W7
French: prodrome n.masc ensemble of symptoms leading up to the development of a medical condition W7
trottoir n sidewalk LRC
Homeric Greek: δρόμος n.masc race, course, running GED
Greek: anadramein vb to run upward W7
anadromos adj running upward W7
(ἀπο-)διδρᾱ́σκω vb to escape GED
δραμεῖν vb to run GED
dromas adj running W7
drómos n.masc run, race, course W7
dromōn n.masc race W7
palindromos adj running back again W7
πρό-δρομος adj prodromal, running forward/in advance LS
Sanskrit: drámati vb to run about GED
drávati vb to run GED
drā́ti vb to run, gallop GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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