Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. der-, heavy-base derə-, drē-   'to cut, skin, split, tear'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut, Skin, Hide, to Split


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: drenn n quarrel GED
Cornish: darn n piece, portion, fragment GED
Welsh: darn n piece, portion, fragment GED/RPN
Old English: taru n tear, rent RPN
teart adj sharp, severe W7
teran, tær, tǣron, toren vb.str.IV to tear (apart), lacerate ASD/GED/RPN
torn n.str.masc anger GED
Middle English: tart adj tart W7
teren vb to tear W7
terren vb to quarrel GED
teter n tetter W7
English: dahl n pigeon pea; stewed lentils/legumes AHD
-derm n.sfx skin, covering AHD/W7
-derma n.sfx skin (ailment) AHD/W7
dermato- pfx re: skin AHD
derris n tropical leguminous Old World shrub/vine AHD/W7
dhurrie n flat-woven cotton rug AHD
epidermis n outer, epithelial layer of skin AHD/W7
phelloderm n tissue produced inwardly by cork cambium AHD
tare n weed IEW
tart adj pungent, agreeably sharp to taste AHD/W7
tear, tore, torn vb.str to rend, separate/pull apart by force AHD/W7
tetter n vesicular skin disease (e.g. herpes, ringworm, eczema) AHD/W7
turd n.vulg dung, feces, piece of excrement AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: tera vb.str.IV to tear apart GED
tornig adj angry GED
Dutch: tarwe n wheat TLL
toorn n.neut anger ASD
torn n division GED
tornen vb to undo; depart GED
Old Saxon: farterian vb.wk to devour GED
terian vb.str.IV to tear (apart) GED/RPN
torn n.neut grief, affliction ASD
torn n.str.masc anger GED
Middle Low German: terren vb to quarrel GED
Low German: terren vb to excite GED
Old High German: firzeran vb.str.IV to tear apart GED
zeran vb.str.IV to rend, tear (apart), destroy GED/RPN
zerren vb.wk to tear GED
zorn n.str.masc grief, anger, jealousy, excitement GED
Middle High German: traz n spite W7
verzern vb.wk to devour GED
zornig adj angry GED
German: Trotz n.masc defiance LRC
trotz prep in spite of TLL
verzehren vb to devour LRC
Zorn n.masc grief, anger LRC
zornig adj angry LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: trauðr adj unwilling, reluctant LRC
Old Icelandic: trefill n rag, tatter RPN
trefr n fringe(s) RPN
tröf n fringe(s) RPN
Danish: trods prep in spite of TLL
Swedish: trots prep in spite of TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *af-taurnan vb.wk.IV to tear off GED/RPN
*dis-tairan vb.str.IV to rend, tear apart GED
*dis-taurnan vb.wk.IV to tear apart GED/RPN
*ga-tairan vb.str.IV to break, destroy, tear down/apart GED
*ga-tarnjan vb.wk.I to rob, take away GED/RPN
*ga-taurnan vb.wk.IV to tear, cease, vanish, be destroyed GED
*ga-taurþs n.fem destruction GED
*tarmjan vb.wk.I to break forth GED
Late Latin: epidermis n.fem epidermis W7
New Latin: -derma sfx skin W7
French: -derme sfx skin W7
Lithuanian: diriù, derù, dìrti vb to flay RPN
dir̃ti vb to tear, flay GED
Latvian: dur̃ns adj confused GED
Old Church Slavonic: derǫ, dьrǫ, dьrati vb to flay, tear apart GED/RPN
Russian: dertь n cleared land GED
drápat', drapát' vb.dial to scrape, scratch RPN
Albanian: drapër n sickle RPN
Greek: δέρμα n.neut skin GED
derris n.fem skin W7
δέρω vb to skin, flay GED
δορός n leather bag GED
δρέπανον n scythe RPN
δρέπω vb to cull, pluck RPN
epidermis n.fem skin W7
Hittite: tarna- vb to leave GED
Armenian: teṙem vb to flay GED/RPN
Avestan: dərətō vb to split GED
Sanskrit: dárt vb to burst GED
dīrṇás adj split, confused GED
dŕ̥ṭiṣ n leather bag GED
dr̥ṇā́ti vb to rend, tear, split, (cause to) burst GED/RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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