Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: derk̑-   'to look'

Semantic Field(s): to Look


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: derc n eye GED
drech n face GED
Welsh: drych n aspect LRC
Old English: draca n.masc dragon ASD/W7
torht adj clear, bright GED
Middle English: dragon n dragon W7
drake n drake W7
ranclen vb to fester W7
tarne n tarn W7
English: dragon n huge serpent AHD/W7
dragoon n member of European military unit: heavily armed mounted troops AHD/W7
drake n small artillery piece AHD/W7
rankle vb to cause anger/bitterness/deep irritation AHD/W7
tarn n small inland/mountain lake W7
tarragon n aromatic Eurasian herb AHD
West Germanic  
Dutch: draak n.masc dragon ASD
Old Saxon: tor(o)ht adj clear, bright, splendid ASD/GED
Old High German: ougo-zorhtan vb.wk to reveal GED
tracho n.masc dragon ASD
zoraht adj bright, clear, evident GED
Middle High German: trache, tracke n.masc dragon ASD
German: Drache n.masc dragon ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: tjörn n.fem tarn W7
Old Icelandic: tjǫrn n.fem tarn GED
Icelandic: dreki n.masc dragon ASD
Danish: drage n.masc/fem dragon ASD
Swedish: drake n.masc dragon ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-tarhjan vb.wk.I to note, expose, distinguish, make public GED
Latin: draco, draconis n.masc snake, dragon W7
dracunculus n.masc small snake W7
New Latin: tarchon n tarragon AHD
Spanish: dragón n.masc dragon ASD
Old French: dragon n.masc dragon, monster W7
draoncle n.masc furuncle, abcess W7
draoncler vb to ooze out pus W7
raoncle n.masc festering sore W7
raoncler vb to fester W7
Middle French: rancler vb to rankle W7
French: dragon n.masc dragon W7
Italian: dragóne n.masc dragon ASD
Albanian: dritë n light GED
Homeric Greek: δέρκομαι vb to look (at), see LRC
δράκων n.masc snake, serpent LRC
Greek: δέργμα n.neut look, glance GED
δέρκομαι vb to see (clearly) GED
δράκων n.masc dragon; tarragon GED
Medieval Greek: tarkhōn n tarragon AHD
Avestan: dādarəsa vb.perf have seen GED
daršti- n sight LRC
Sanskrit: dadárśa vb.perf have seen GED
dárśat have seen GED
darśáyati vb to cause to see GED
darś- vb to see LRC
dr̥ś- vb to view GED
dr̥ṣṭás vb.perf seen GED
dr̥ṣṭiṣ vb to glance GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
aor=aorist (tense)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
perf=perfect (aspect)
sg=singular (number)
subj=subjunctive (mood)
wk=weak (inflection)
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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