Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: deru-, dō̆ru-, dr(e)u-, drou-, dreu̯ə- : drū-   'firm, solid; tree, wood'

Semantic Field(s): Hard, Tree, Oak, Wood, Timber


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: dair, daur n oak GED
derucc n acorn GED
druid n druid, lit. tree-seer GED
drūi adj knowing certainly GED
Old Breton: dar, deru- n oak GED
Cornish: dar n oak GED
Welsh: dar n oak GED
derwen n oak GED/RPN
Gaulish: *darik- n larch-tree GED
Dervus prop.n Oakwood GED
druides adj knowing certainly GED
druides n.masc druid, lit. tree-seer W7
drū́tas adj firm GED
Old English: te(o)ru n.neut tar, resin GED
tierwe n.neut tar, resin GED/RPN
trēg, trīg n.neut tray, trough ASD/W7
trēo(w) n tree, wood, beam GED
trēow n truth, fidelity W7
trēowan vb to trow W7
trēowe adj true, faithful W7
trēowen adj wooden, of a tree GED
trēowþ n truth, troth W7
trog, troh n.masc trough ASD/W7
trum adj strong, firm W7
truwa n.masc trust, belief GED
trūwian vb.wk to trust GED
trymian vb to trim W7
trymman vb to strengthen, arrange W7
Middle English: axeltre n axletree W7
betrouthen vb to betroth W7
dour adj dour W7
duresse n duress W7
enduren vb to endure W7
obdurate adj obdurate W7
tarr, terr n tar W7
tray n tray W7
tree n tree W7
trewe adj true W7
trewe n agreement W7
trig adj trig W7
trimmen vb to prepare, put in order W7
trost, trust n trust GED
trough n trough W7
trouth(e) n truth, troth W7
trowen vb to trow W7
trust n trust W7
tryst n tryst W7
English: axletree n fixed bar/beam with bearings for wheels AHD/W7
betroth vb.trans to promise to marry/give in marriage AHD/W7
dendro- pfx tree-like, re: tree(s) AHD
dendrobium n (genus of) SE Asian orchid AHD/CDC
dendron n dendrite: protoplasmic nerve-cell process AHD/CDC
deodar n East Indian cedar AHD/W7
dour adj harsh, stern AHD/W7
druid n Celtic priest: seer, wizard, magician AHD/W7
dryad n wood nymph AHD/W7
dryopithecine n Old World anthropoid ape of Miocene/Pliocene epoch AHD/W7
duramen n heartwood AHD/W7
duress n forcible restraint/restriction AHD/W7
durum n hardy wheat used for pasta AHD
endure vb to last, continue in same state AHD/W7
germander n plant in mint family AHD/W7
indurate vb to make stubborn/obdurate/unfeeling AHD/W7
obdurate adj hardened in feelings AHD/W7
philodendron n aroid flowering plant AHD/W7
rhododendron n evergreen shrub/tree with showy flowers AHD/W7
tar n dark brown/black bituminous viscous liquid AHD/W7
tray n open, low rimmed, flat-bottomed receptacle for holding/carrying/exhibiting articles AHD/W7
tree n woody perennial plant with single elongated main stem AHD/W7
Treebeard prop.n Ent a.k.a. Fangorn in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Treegarth prop.n Ent/Huorn enclosure in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
tree-herd n Ent description in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
trig adj smart, stylishly trim AHD/W7
trim vb to adorn, embellish with lace/ribbons/ornaments AHD/W7
troth n fidelity, loyal/pledged faithfulness AHD/W7
trough n long shallow V-shaped receptacle for feeding/watering domestic animals AHD/W7
trouse n trash, waste, rubbish IEW
trow vb to trust, believe AHD/GED/W7
truce n cease-fire, armistice, suspension of fighting AHD/W7
true adj loyal, steadfast AHD/W7
true adv truthfully AHD/W7
trust n reliance on truth/strength/character/ability AHD/W7
trust vb to hope, be confident, rely/depend on W7
truth n constancy, fidelity AHD/W7
tryst n agreement (e.g. between lovers) to meet AHD/W7
British English: trug n shallow oval gardening basket AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: trāst n trust GED
trē n.neut tree, wood, beam ASD/GED
triuwe, treuwe n.fem truth ASD
triuwe adj true, faithful, trustworthy ASD
trouwa n.masc trust, faith, belief ASD
Middle Dutch: troose n trust GED
Dutch: teer n tar TLL
Old Saxon: treo, trio, triu n.str.neut tree, beam, cross ASD/GED/RPN
trewa n.fem truth ASD
triuwi adj true, faithful, trustworthy ASD
trūōn vb.wk to trust, be confident GED
Old Low German: treuwa n.fem treaty, agreement ASD
Middle Low German: trūwe n.fem trust, belief GED
Low German: teer n.fem tar GED
Old High German: ga-triuwida n.fem confidence ASD
gi-triuwi adj true, faithful, trustworthy W7
triuwa n.fem accord, treaty, agreement ASD
trog n.masc trough, basin, hollow, channel, cavity ASD
trōst n trust GED
trūwa n.fem trust, belief GED
trū(w)ēn vb.wk to trust GED
German: Druide n.masc druid LRC
getrost adv confidently LRC
Teer n.masc tar LRC
trauen vb to trow LRC
Trost n.masc solace, comfort, consolation GED
North Germanic  
Old Norse: traust n trust, agreement W7
tré n.neut tree; log, beam LRC
trúa(ð) vb to believe, trust, have faith in LRC
tryggr adj faithful W7
öxultrē n axletree W7
Old Icelandic: dārvi- n.fem ladle GED
tjara n.neut tar GED
traust n.neut trust, support, firmness, confidence GED
trē n tree, wood, beam GED
tros n trouse IEW
trū n trust, belief GED
trūa vb.wk to trust GED
tyrvi n.neut resinous fir-tree GED
Icelandic: tjara n.neut tar, resin, gum ASD
tŕa vb to trust, believe ASD
tré n.neut tree, wood, beam ASD
trog n.masc trough, tub, basin ASD
trúa n.masc trust, faith, belief ASD
tryggð n.fem truce; faith ASD
tryggr adj true, faithful, trustworthy ASD
Norwegian: treen adj hard GED
Danish: tjære n tar TLL
træ n tree; wood TLL
Swedish: tjära n tar TLL
trä n wood TLL
träd n tree TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: trauains n.fem trust, confidence GED
trauan vb.wk.III to trust, confide GED
triggwa n.fem covenant ASD
triggws adj true, faithful ASD
*triu n.neut tree, wood, stick, branch; staff GED/RPN
triweins adj wooden ASD
weina-triu n.neut vine GED
Latin: druidae, druides druids W7
dryas, dryadis n.fem dryad W7
duramen n.neut hardness W7
duritia, duritiae n.fem hardship, hardness LRC
durus adj hard W7
rhododendron n.neut rosebay W7
New Latin: philodendron n.neut (genus of) aroid flowering plant W7
Middle French: duresce n.fem hardness, severity W7
endurer vb to endure W7
Old Prussian: druwis n belief GED
druwīt vb to believe GED
Lithuanian: dãrva n tar RPN
dervà n.fem resinous wood GED/RPN
drūtas adj strong GED
sūdrùs, sū́drus adj thick, luxuriant (of plants) GED
Latvian: dãrva n tar GED
Old Church Slavonic: drěvo n tree GED/RPN
sъ-drav adj healthy GED
Russian: derevo n tree GED
dromъ n thicket GED
zdorovyj adj healthy GED
Albanian: dru n.fem tree, wood, bark GED/RPN
Gheg: drû n.masc wood LRC
Macedonian Greek: δάρυλλος n oak GED
Homeric Greek: δρῡμός n.masc wood, forest, oak coppice GED
Greek: δένδρε(Ϝ)ον n.neut tree GED
δόρυ n tree, wood, beam, spear GED/RPN
dryas n.fem Dryad, Nymph W7
δρύινος adj oaken GED
δρῦς n.fem tree, oak GED
pithēkos n.masc ape W7
rhododendron n.neut lit. rose-tree W7
philodendron n.neut lit. lover-of-tree(s) W7
philodendros adj loving trees W7
Hittite: taru- n wood GED/RPN
Armenian: targal n spoon GED
New Persian: durust adj hale GED
Avestan: dāuru- n log, wood(en object) GED/RPN
drvaēna- n wooden RPN
Sanskrit: dā́ru- n log, timber, (piece of) wood GED/RPN
dāruṇa adj hard W7
deva n god W7
devadāru n lit. timber of the gods W7
drú-ḥ n wood, wood tool RPN
dru-padá- n post, stake GED
drumá- n.masc tree GED
dru-ṣád- adj perching on a branch? GED
su-drú- adj of good wood GED
Hindi: deodār n deodar, lit. gods' timber W7
Tocharian: or n wood GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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