Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: deuk-   'to tug, pull, drag, tow'

Semantic Field(s): to Draw, Pull


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Breton: duc vb to bear (away), carry (off) GED
Cornish: dog vb to bring, carry GED
Middle Welsh: dwc vb to bring, carry GED
Old English: here-toga, here-toha n.str.masc duke GED/ASD
tǣman, tīeman vb to teem W7
tēag n tie, rope GED
tēam n.masc team, offspring W7/ASD
tēam n.str.masc rein, bridle GED
tēon, téah, tugon, togen vb to draw, pull, train W7/GED
tīegan vb to tie GED
togian, togjan vb to tug, tow, pull W7/GED
tyge n pulling GED
tygel n strap GED
tyht n.masc conduct, breeding, upbringing GED
Middle English: conducen vb to conduct W7
conduit n conduit W7
ducat n ducat W7
duche n duchy W7
duchesse n duchess W7
duke n duke W7
educaten vb to rear W7
inducen vb to induce W7
producen vb to produce W7
reducen vb to lead back W7
teg, tye n tie W7
teme n theme W7
temen vb to teem W7
toggen vb to tug GED
tought adj taut W7
towen vb to tow W7
tuggen vb to tug W7
wanton n wanton W7
English: abducens n cranial nerves conveying motor impulses AHD
abducent adj abducting (e.g. muscle) AHD/W7
abduct vb.trans to carry off (e.g. someone) by force AHD/W7
adduce vb.trans to offer as proof/reason/example in discussion/analysis AHD/W7
aqueduct n water conduit AHD/W7
circumduction n leading about; movement of leg/arm in arc/circle AHD/CDC
condottiere n leader of European mercenary band AHD/W7
conduce vb.intrans to contribute, lead/tend to desirable result AHD/W7
conduct n guide, escort AHD/W7
deduce vb.trans to trace course of AHD/W7
deduct vb.trans to subtract, take away (amount from total) AHD/W7
doge n chief magistrate in Venice/Genoa AHD/W7
douche n water jet/current directed against/into body part/cavity AHD/W7
ducal adj re: duke(dom) AHD/W7
ducat n European gold coin AHD/W7
duce n leader AHD/W7
duchess n wife of duke/woman holding ducal title AHD/W7
duchy n dukedom, territory of duke/duchess AHD/W7
duct n body tube/vessel, esp. carrying gland secretion AHD/W7
ductile adj capable of being reshaped AHD/W7
duke n sovereign ruler of European duchy AHD/W7
educate vb.trans to provide schooling for AHD/W7
educe vb.trans to bring out (e.g. something latent) AHD/W7
induce vb.trans to lead/move by persuasion/influence AHD/W7
introduce vb.trans to lead/bring in, esp. for first time AHD/W7
produce vb to exhibit, offer for view/notice AHD/W7
redoubt n small enclosed temporary defensive work AHD/W7
reduce vb to consolidate, draw together/cause to converge AHD/W7
seduce vb to persuade to disobey AHD/W7
seduction n seducing to wrong AHD/W7
subduction n forcing one below another AHD
subdue vb to conquer, vanquish, subjugate AHD
taut adj tightly drawn, not slack AHD/W7
team n race, lineage AHD/W7
tee vb to place (golf ball) for hitting/clubbing GED
teem vb to produce/bring forth/give birth AHD/W7
tie n line/ribbon/cord used to close/fasten/unite something AHD/W7
tow vb.trans to haul, draw/pull behind AHD/W7
traduce vb.trans to defame, disgrace, lower reputation of AHD/W7
transducer n device, powered by system 1, supplying different power to system 2 AHD/W7
tug vb to pull hard AHD/W7
viaduct n bridge (on series of narrow arches) AHD/W7
wanton adj unruly, undisciplined AHD/W7
Zugunruhe prop.n migratory drive in animals AHD
zugzwang n game situation where undesirable/disadvantageous move is forced AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: tām n.masc team, family, progeny, descendants ASD
tām n.str.masc rein, bridle GED
tiā vb to tow GED
Old Frankish: tiā vb to tow ASD
toga vb to tug, pull about, treat roughly ASD
Middle Dutch: toom n.str.masc rein, bridle GED
Dutch: toom n.masc line ASD
Old Saxon: heri-toga, heri-togo n.str.masc duke GED/ASD
tiohan vb to tow GED
Old Low German: tōm n.masc rein, bridle, harness ASD
Old High German: gi-ziug n.str.neut stuff, things, provisions GED
gi-ziugōn vb to state one's case GED
heri-zogo, heri-zoho n.str.masc duke GED/ASD
ziohan vb to tow GED
zocchōn, zucken, zucchen vb.wk to tug, snatch, drag off GED/ASD
zogōn vb.wk to tug GED
zoum n.str.masc rein, bridle; rope, strap GED
zug n.str march, draught GED
zug(i) n.masc movement ASD
zugil n.masc rein, strap, thong GED
zuht n.str.fem conduct, breeding, upbringing GED
Middle High German: (ge-)ziuc n.wk.masc witness GED
ziehen vb to tow GED
ziuc n.str.neut stuff, things, provisions GED
ziugen vb.wk to get, produce, provide GED
German: Herzog n.str.masc duke GED
Zaum n.masc bridle LRC
Zeug n.str.neut stuff, things, provisions GED
Zeuge n.wk.masc witness GED
zeugen vb.wk to get, produce, provide GED
ziehen vb to tow LRC
Zucht n.fem breeding LRC
zucken vb to jerk, twitch LRC
Zügel n.masc rein LRC
Zugunruhe n.fem Zugunruhe AHD
Zugzwang n.masc zugzwang AHD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: taug n rope W7
toga, togað vb to tug LRC
Old Icelandic: taug n.fem rope, tie GED
taumr n.str.masc rein, bridle GED
teygja vb.wk to tug GED
tjōa vb to help GED
tog n rope, line, cord GED
toga vb to tug GED
tygill n strap GED
Icelandic: her-togi n duke, general ASD
taumr n.masc rein, cord, bridle ASD
toga vb to tug ASD
tygill n.masc strap, thong ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-tiuhan vb.str.II to lead, bring LRC
tiuhan vb.str.II to tow; lead, bring GED
Old Latin: doucō vb to lead GED
Latin: abduco, abducere, abduxi, abductus vb to abduct, lead away, carry off W7
adduco, adducere vb to adduce, lead to W7
aquaeductus n.masc aqueduct W7
conduco, conducere, conduxi, conductus vb to lead, drive, conduct W7
deduco, deducere, deduxi, deductus vb to deduce, subtract, lead away W7
dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductum vb to lead, consider GED
ductilis, ductile adj ductile W7
ductio, ductionis n.fem act of leading W7
ductus n.masc duct; act of leading W7
dux, ducis n.masc duke, leader GED
ēdūcō, ēdūcāre, ēdūcāvī, ēdūcātus vb to educate, bring up, lit. draw out W7/GED
indūcō, indūcere vb to induce, lead in W7
intrōdūcō, intrōdūcere vb to introduce W7
prōdūcō, prōdūcere vb to produce, lead forward W7
redūcō, redūcere, redūxī, reductus vb to reduce, restore, lead back W7
sēdūcō, sēdūcere, sēdūxī, sēductus vb to seduce, lead away W7
seductio n.fem seduction, lit. leading aside W7
subdūcō, subdūcere vb to withdraw W7
trādūcō, trādūcere vb to bring through, lead/carry across W7
trānsdūcō, trānsdūcere vb to transduce, bring through, lead/carry across W7
Late Latin: ducalis adj ducal, re: leader W7
Medieval Latin: reductus n.masc secret place W7
Old French: aqueduct n aqueduct CDC
conduit n.masc escort; act of leading W7
duc n.masc duke W7
Middle French: duc n.masc duke W7
ducal adj ducal W7
ducat n.masc coin W7
duché n.masc duchy W7
duchesse n.fem duchess W7
ductile adj ductile W7
séduction n.fem seduction W7
French: aqueduc n.masc aqueduct CDC
douche n.fem shower W7
redoute n.fem redoubt W7
Old Italian: duca n.masc doge W7
ducato n.masc coin bearing doge's portrait W7
Italian: condottiere n.masc captain, soldier W7/CID
doccia n.fem spout, water-pipe W7/CID
docciare vb to shower W7
doccione n.masc conduit, large water-pipe W7/CID
Duce prop.n.masc leader [title of Benito Mussolini] W7
ridotto n.masc resort, retreat W7
Albanian: nduk vb to pluck (hairs) GED
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: δαιδύσσω vb to rub, drag GED
Greek: Δευκαλίων prop.n.masc Deucalion LRC
στρατηγός n commander, strategist GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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