Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. deu-, deu̯ə-, du̯ā-, dū-   'to pass, move forward'

Semantic Field(s): to Overtake


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: tȳrian, tēorian vb.wk to tire, faint, fail, cease ASD/W7
Middle English: durable adj durable W7
duren vb to last W7
during prep during W7
perdurable adj perdurable W7
tyren vb to tire W7
English: deontology n theory/study of moral obligation AHD/W7
deuteragonist n actor taking 2nd part in classical Greek drama AHD/W7
deuterium n hydrogen isotope with one neutron AHD/W7
deutero- pfx second (2nd) AHD
Deuteronomy prop.n 2nd statement of Judaic law AHD/CDC
durable adj able to endure AHD/W7
durance n imprisonment AHD/W7
duration n continuance in time AHD
during prep throughout duration of AHD/W7
perdurable adj very durable AHD/W7
thermoduric adj able to survive temperature extremes AHD/W7
tire vb to become weary AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: gedurende prep during TLL
Old Saxon: far-terian vb to destroy ASD
Middle High German: zouwen vb to hasten, proceed RPN
Latin: durabilis adj lasting W7
dūrō, dūrāre vb to harden, endure ELD
indūrō, indūrāre, indūrāvī, indūrātus vb to harden, make hard ELD
obdūrō, obdūrāre, obdūrāvī, obdūrātus vb to be hard, hold out ELD
perdūrō, perdūrāre vb to last, endure ELD
Late Latin: perdurabilis adj perdurable W7
New Latin: deuterium n.neut hydrogen isotope W7
Portuguese: durante prep during TLL
Spanish: durante prep during TLL
Old French: durer vb to last W7
perdurable adj durable W7
Middle French: durable adj lasting W7
durance n.fem period during which something lasts W7
durer vb to last W7
Italian: durante prep during TLL
Old Church Slavonic: davьnъ adj ancient, long-standing RPN
davě adj ancient, long-standing RPN
Greek: δεῖ it is necessary LRC
deon n.neut that which is obligatory W7
deuteragōnistēs n.masc deuteragonist W7
δεύτερος, δευτερ- adj/pfx second LRC
δήν adv long, far (of time/place) RPN
Hittite: tu-u-wa adv afar, to a distance RPN
tu-u-wa-la long distance RPN
Old Persian: dūradaša adv from afar RPN
dūraiy adv far away, far and wide RPN
duvaišta- adj very long, very far RPN
Avestan: dūrāt̰ adv far RPN
Sanskrit: dávati vb to go RPN
daváyati vb to remove, make distant RPN
daviṣṭhá-ḥ adj.sup farthest RPN
dávīyas- adj.comp farther RPN
dūtá-ḥ n envoy, messenger RPN
dūrá-ḥ adj far, remote, distant RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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