Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dn̥g̑hū, dn̥g̑hu̯ā   'tongue'

Semantic Field(s): Tongue


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: tengae n tongue GED
Middle Breton: teaut n tongue GED
Old Cornish: tauot n tongue GED
Middle Welsh: tauawt n tongue GED
Old English: tunge n.wk.fem tongue GED
wyrm-tunge n.wk.fem bitter-spoken person LRC
Middle English: language n language W7
languet n languet W7
tunge n tongue W7
English: bilingual adj re: two tongues/languages AHD/W7
biltong n jerked meat AHD/W7
language n community use of vocal sounds/written symbols to communicate AHD/W7
languet n something resembling tongue in form/function AHD/W7
ligula n strap-shaped/tongue-like structure (esp. in insects) AHD
ligule n scale-like plant projection AHD/W7
lingo n strange/incomprehensible speech/language AHD/W7
lingua n tongue, tongue-like organ AHD
linguine, linguini n long, flat, thin pasta strand(s) AHD
linguist n language specialist AHD
linguistic adj re: language LRC
linguistics n study of language(s) LRC
tongue n fleshy movable sensory organ of lower jaw AHD/W7
Wormtongue prop.n epithet for Grima in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: tunge n.wk.fem tongue GED
Middle Dutch: tonghe n tongue AHD
Dutch: tong n tongue TLL
Afrikaans: biltong n biltong W7
tong n tongue W7
Old Saxon: tunga n.wk.fem tongue GED
Old Low German: tunga n.fem tongue ASD
Old High German: zunga n.wk.fem tongue GED
German: Zunge n.fem tongue LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: tunga n.wk.fem tongue LRC
Old Icelandic: tunga n.wk.fem tongue GED
Icelandic: tunga n.fem tongue ASD
Danish: tunge n tongue TLL
Swedish: tunga n tongue TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: tuggo n.fem tongue GED
Old Latin: dingua n tongue GED
Latin: bilinguis adj bilingual W7
ligula n.fem.dim small tongue, strap W7
lingua, linguae n.fem tongue, language LRC
New Latin: ligula n.fem.dim part of insect's labium W7
Old French: langua n.fem tongue, language W7
language n.masc language W7
Middle French: langue n.fem tongue W7
languete n.fem.dim small tongue W7
Provençal: lingo n.masc tongue W7
Italian: linguina n.dim small tongue AHD
Lithuanian: liežùvis n tongue GED
Old Church Slavonic: językъ n.masc tongue, language, nation LRC
Classical Armenian: lezu n tongue, language LRC
Tocharian B: käntwā n tongue GED
Tocharian A: käntu tongues GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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