Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dō- : də-, also dō-u- : dəu- : du-   'to give, donate'

Semantic Field(s): to Give


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: antidot n antidote W7
betrayen vb to betray W7
date n date W7
datif adj dative W7
dee n die W7
donatyowne n donation W7
dowarie n dowry W7
dowere n dower W7
endowen vb to endow W7
pardonen vb to pardon W7
rendren vb to render W7
rente n rent W7
surrenderen vb to surrender W7
tradicious n tradition W7
traitre n traitor W7
trayen vb to betray W7
tresoun n treason W7
English: anecdote n short story of amusing/interesting/biographical incident AHD/W7
antidote n remedy to effects of poison AHD/W7
apodosis n main clause of conditional sentence AHD/W7
betray vb to lead astray AHD/W7
condone vb.trans to pardon/overlook voluntarily AHD/W7
dacha n Russian country house AHD/W7
dado n part of column pedestal between base/surbase AHD/W7
date n day/time when event occurs AHD/W7
dative adj (grammatical case) re: verb's indirect object/preposition's object AHD/W7
datum n something given/admitted as basis for reasoning/inference AHD/W7
die n one among set of dice AHD/W7
donate vb to give, contribute, make a gift W7
donation n gift/action of giving to charity/institution AHD/W7
donative adj re: donation AHD/W7
donor n one who gives/donates/presents AHD/W7
dose n amount of therapeutic agent taken at one time AHD/W7
dot n dowry AHD/W7
dowager n widow holding title/property received from late husband AHD/W7
dower n part of/interest in deceased husband's estate given to widow AHD/W7
dowry n dower AHD/W7
edition n form in which text (e.g. book) is published AHD/W7
endow vb.trans to furnish with dower AHD/W7
epidote n yellowish green mineral, silicate of iron/calcium/aluminum AHD/W7
Pandora prop.n woman who, given box by Zeus with instructions not to open it, opened it and released all human ills (Greek mythology) LRC
pardon vb.trans to free from penalty AHD/W7
quitrent n rent paid in lieu of required services AHD
render vb to try, melt down AHD/W7
rent n property (e.g. house) rented/for rent; periodic sum paid to landlord by tenant AHD/W7
surrender vb to yield to another's power AHD/W7
tradition n handing down of custom or belief to future generations AHD/W7
traitor n one who betrays trust, is false to duty/obligation AHD/W7
treason n treachery, perfidy, betrayal of trust AHD/W7
vend vb to sell, exchange via sale AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Dativ n.masc dative LRC
Datum n.neut date LRC
Dosis n.fem dose LRC
Latin: antidotum n.neut antidote W7
condono, condonare vb to forgive W7
dativus n.masc dative (case) W7
deditus, dedita, deditum adj devoted, addicted LRC
dō, dare, dedī, datus vb to give, furnish, deliver RPN
-do, -dere, -didi, -ditus vb.sfx to give W7
dōnātio, dōnātiōnis n.fem gift, donation W7
dōnātīvus n.masc gift to soldiers W7
dōnātor n.masc donor W7
dōnō, dōnāre, dōnāvī, dōnātus vb to give, donate W7
dōnum n.neut gift W7
dōs, dōtis n.fem dowry W7
dōtō, dōtāre vb to endow, give a dowry W7
editio, editionis n.fem edition, publication W7
ēdō, ēdere, edidi, editus vb to bring forth, produce, publish W7
Pandora n.fem Pandora W7
reddō, reddere vb to give back W7
traditio, traditionis n.fem action of handing over, tradition W7
traditor n.masc traitor W7
trādō, trādere, trādidī, trāditus vb to betray, deliver, transmit W7
vēndō, vēndere vb to sell, give for sale W7
Vulgar Latin: rendita n.fem income from property W7
rendo, rendere, rendidi, renditus vb to yield, give back W7
Late Latin: apodosis n apodosis AHD
perdonō, perdonāre vb to grant freely W7
Medieval Latin: dotarium n.neut dowry W7
Old French: rente n.fem income from a property W7
traïr vb to betray W7
traison n.fem treason W7
traitre n.masc traitor W7
Anglo-French: dowarie n.fem dowry W7
endouer vb to endow W7
Middle French: date n.fem date W7
dé n.masc die W7
doneur n.masc donor W7
douage n.fem dower W7
douagiere adj dowager W7
douaire n.masc dowry of a (former) queen W7
douer vb to endow W7
edition n.fem edition W7
pardoner vb to forgive W7
rendre vb to yield, give back W7
surrendre vb to surrender W7
tradition n.fem tradition W7
French: anecdote n.fem anecdote W7
donner vb to give TLL
dose n.fem dose, ration W7
dot n.fem dowry W7
Italian: dado n.masc die, cube W7/CID
dare vb to give TLL
Lithuanian: dovanà n gift, present RPN
dúoti, dúoda, dãvė vb to give LRC
Latvian: padoties, padodos, padevos vb to succumb, surrender LRC
Old Church Slavonic: dati, damь, dasi vb to give LRC
dajati, dajǫ, daješi vb to give LRC
Russian: dat' vb to give LRC
Cyprian: δοϜεναι vb to give RPN
Homeric Greek: διδόω, δίδωμι vb to give, grant, donate LRC
Greek: anekdota unpublished items W7
anekdotos adj unpublished W7
antididonai vb to give in exchange W7
antidotos vb.ptc given in exchange W7
apodidonai vb to deliver, give back W7
apodosis n.fem rendering, giving back W7
dosis n.fem act of giving W7
ekdidonai vb to publish W7
epididonai vb to give in addition W7
Pandōra prop.n.fem Pandora, lit. Gift of All W7
Hittite: da-hhi vb to take LRC
Classical Armenian: tam vb to give; let, permit LRC
Old Persian: dadaiti vb to give TLL
Sanskrit: dá-dā-ti vb to give, grant RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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