Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. dhē-   'to do, put, place, set'

Semantic Field(s): to Put, Place, Set, Lay


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Gaulish: dede vb.3.pret has placed GED
Old English: dǣd n.fem deed, action LRC
dēman vb.irr to deem, judge W7/ASD
-dōm sfx state, power, condition W7
dōm n.str.masc doom, fate, judgment; glory; decision LRC
dōn vb.anom to do, make LRC
fordōn vb to fordo W7
wēa-dǣd n.fem crime, lit. evil deed GED
wel-dǣd n.fem good deed GED
Middle English: adden vb to add W7
affaire, affair n affair W7
affection n affection W7
amplifien vb to amplify W7
apothecarie n apothecary W7
benefactor n benefactor AHD
benefice n benefice W7
benefit n benefit W7
chaufen vb to chafe, warm W7
condiment n condiment W7
confit n comfit W7
countrefet adj counterfeit W7
dede n deed W7
defacen vb to deface W7
defaicte n defect W7
defesance n defeasance W7
deffeten vb to defeat W7
demen vb to deem W7
difficulte n difficulty W7
discomfiten vb to discomfit W7
dōm, doom, dum n doom, fate, judgment; decision W7
-dom sfx state, power, condition W7
dōn vb.anom to do GED
edifice n edifice W7
edifien vb to edify W7
effect n execution/completion (of an act) W7
efficient adj efficient W7
-faccioun sfx -faction W7
face n face W7
facioun n fashion W7
factor n factor W7
faculte n faculty W7
faisible adj feasible W7
fait, fayt, fete adj neat, becoming; smart, dexterous W7
familie n family W7
fasoun n shape, manner W7
feture n feature W7
-fien sfx -fy W7
fordon vb.anom to fordo W7
forfait n forfeit W7
infecten vb to infect W7
justifien vb to justify W7
malefactor n malefactor W7
modifien vb to modify W7
mollifien vb to mollify W7
mortifien vb to mortify W7
notifien vb to notify W7
office n office W7
parfit adj perfect W7
perdicion n perdition W7
prefect n prefect W7
profit n profit W7
putrefien vb to putrefy W7
rarefien, rarifien vb to rarefy W7
rectifien vb to rectify W7
sacrifice n sacrifice W7
sanctifien vb to sanctify W7
satisfien vb to satisfy W7
sconce n sconce W7
sufficen vb to suffice W7
sufficient adj sufficient W7
surfait n surfeit W7
teme, theme n theme W7
tik(k)e n ticking W7
English: abdomen n part of body between thorax and pelvis AHD/W7
abscond vb.intrans to depart secretly, hide oneself AHD/W7
add vb to join/unite to increase in size/number/amount AHD/W7
affair n commercial/professional/public business AHD/W7
affect vb to aim at AHD/W7
affection n moderate feeling/emotion AHD/W7
aficionado n fan, enthusiastic admirer/follower AHD
amphithecium n outer cell layer of spore-containing moss capsule AHD
amplify vb to expand via illustration/clarifying detail/closer analysis AHD/W7
anathema n solemn ban/curse pronounced by ecclesiastical authority AHD/W7
antithesis n rhetorical contrast of ideas AHD/W7
apothecary n one who prepares/sells medicines AHD/W7
apothecium n spore-bearing structure in lichens/fungi AHD/W7
artifact n object showing human workmanship/modification AHD/W7
artifice n trick, artful stratagem AHD/W7
beatific adj re: state of bliss AHD/W7
benefaction n good deed, act of benefitting AHD/W7
benefactor n one who makes gift/bequest AHD
benefic adj beneficent AHD/W7
benefice n eccesiastical office with endowment revenue AHD/W7
beneficence n state/quality of doing/producing good AHD/W7
benefit n act of kindness AHD/W7
bibliotheca n library, collection of books AHD/W7
bodega n small wineshop/grocery store AHD
boutique n small retail shop AHD
chafe vb to warm AHD/W7
comfit n fruit/root/seed confection coated/preserved with sugar AHD/W7
condiment n something to enhance food flavor AHD/W7
confect vb.trans to compound, concoct AHD/W7
confetti n little candies AHD/W7
counterfeit adj imitation, made/forged to deceive AHD/W7
deed n something done AHD/W7
deem vb to hold, come to think/judge AHD/W7
deface vb.trans to mar/destroy face of AHD/W7
defeasance n rendering null/void AHD/W7
defeat vb.trans to destroy AHD/W7
defect n shortcoming, imperfection AHD/W7
defect vb.intrans to desert cause/group AHD/W7
deficient adj lacking necessary quality/element AHD/W7
diathesis n predisposition toward disease/abnormality AHD/W7
difficulty n something arduous, hard to do/make/carry out AHD/W7
discomfit vb.trans to defeat in battle AHD/W7
do, did, done vb.anom to carry out, bring to pass AHD/W7
-dom n.sfx office, dignity AHD/W7
doom n fate, judgment AHD/W7
Duma prop.n Russian legislative council/assembly AHD
dumka n Polish melancholic lament/threnody AHD/CDC
edifice n building AHD/W7
edify vb.trans to build AHD/W7
efface vb.trans to obliterate, wipe out AHD/W7
effect n intent, result, outcome AHD/W7
efficacious adj having power to produce desired effect AHD/W7
efficient adj immediately effecting AHD/W7
epenthesis n insertion/development of sound/letter in a word AHD/W7
epithet n characterizing word/phrase accompanying/in place of name AHD/W7
facade n front of building (with special architecture) AHD/W7
face n front part of (human) head AHD/W7
facet n small planar surface (e.g. on cut gem) AHD/W7
facial adj re: face AHD/W7
-facient adj.sfx making, causing AHD/W7
facies n facial appearance/expression characteristic of some condition AHD/W7
facile adj easily attained/accomplished AHD/W7
facilitate vb to make easier AHD/W7
facsimile n exact copy AHD/W7
fact n thing done AHD/W7
-faction n.sfx -fication, making AHD/W7
faction n clique, selfish/contentious group AHD/W7
factitious adj produced artificially AHD/W7
factitive adj re: transitive verb requiring object + objective complement AHD/W7
factor n one who acts/transacts business for another AHD/W7
factory n place where resident factors trade AHD/W7
faculty n power, ability AHD/W7
faena n final passes performed by matador AHD
family n household; servants of house/establishment OED
fashion n make/form of something AHD/W7
feasible adj capable of being done/carried out AHD/W7
feat adj neat, becoming AHD/W7
feature n form/structure/appearance AHD/W7
feckless adj weak, ineffectual AHD/W7
fetish n object believed to have magical power AHD/W7
-fic adj.sfx making, causing AHD/W7
for(e)do vb.trans to destroy, do away with AHD/W7
forfeit n penalty, something lost AHD/W7
-fy vb.sfx to make, form into AHD/W7
hacienda n large house on estate/plantation AHD
hypothecate vb.trans to pledge without conveying title/possession AHD/W7
hypothesis n tentative assumption made to test logical/empirical consequences AHD/W7
incondite adj crude, badly assembled AHD/W7
indeed adv certainly, in fact, without doubt AHD
infect vb.trans to contaminate with disease-producing germs/substance/bacteria AHD/W7
justify vb to vindicate, prove/show to be just/right/reasonable AHD/W7
malefactor n one who commits legal offense AHD/W7
malfeasance n wrongful conduct AHD
manufacture n something made by hand AHD/W7
metathesis n change of place/condition AHD/W7
misfeasance n trepass AHD/W7
modify vb to moderate, make less extreme AHD/W7
mollify vb to appease, soothe in temper/disposition AHD/W7
mortify vb to destroy strength/function/vitality AHD/W7
multifarious adj having great diversity/variety AHD/W7
notify vb.trans to point out AHD/W7
nullify vb.trans to make null AHD/W7
office n special charge/duty/position conferred by government authority AHD/W7
omnifarious adj of all forms/kinds/varieties AHD/W7
orifice n hole, mouth/similar opening AHD/W7
ossify vb to change into bone AHD/W7
parenthesis n amplifying/explanatory word/phrase/sentence AHD/W7
perdition n utter destruction AHD/W7
perfect adj expert, proficient AHD/W7
perithecium n spherical/cylindrical/flask-shaped hollow fungal fruiting body AHD/W7
petrify vb to convert to stone/stony substance AHD/W7
pluperfect adj past perfect AHD/W7
pontifex n member of high council of priests, lit. bridge maker AHD/W7
pontiff n pontifex; bishop, pope W7
prefect n high official/magistrate AHD/W7
proficient adj adept, well advanced in art/knowledge/occupation AHD/W7
profit n gain, valuable return AHD/W7
prosthesis n artificial device replacing missing body part AHD/W7
prothesis n addition of sound to beginning of word AHD/W7
purdah n secluding (women) from public view AHD/W7
putrefy vb to make rotten AHD/W7
qualify vb to modify, reduce from general to particular/restricted form AHD/W7
ramify vb to cause to branch AHD/W7
rarefy vb to make thin/porous/less dense AHD/W7
recondite adj concealed, hidden from sight AHD/W7
rectify vb.trans to remedy, set right AHD/W7
refect vb.trans to refresh with food/drink AHD/W7
refectory n (monastery) dining hall AHD/W7
rubefacient adj causing redness (e.g. of skin) AHD/W7
sacrifice n act of offering to deity something precious AHD/W7
salmagundi n unmixed salad; potpourri AHD/W7
sanctify vb.trans to consecrate, set apart for religious use/sacred purpose AHD/W7
sandhi n sound modification conditioned by context, lit. placing together AHD/W7
saponify vb to turn into soap AHD/W7
satisfy vb to discharge, carry out terms of (contract) AHD/W7
scarify vb.trans to make scratches/small cuts in (skin) AHD/W7
sconce n candlestick bracket AHD/W7
spinifex n Australian grass AHD/W7
suffice vb to meet/satisfy need, be sufficient AHD/W7
sufficient adj enough to meet needs of situation/proposed end AHD/W7
surface n upper/exterior boundary of object AHD/W7
surfeit n excess, overabundant supply AHD/W7
synthesis n combination/composition of parts/elements to form whole AHD/W7
theca n spore case, sac, capsule AHD/W7
thematic adj re: word stem AHD/W7
theme n subject/topic of discourse/artistic representation AHD/W7
thesis n position/proposition maintained/advanced by scholastic candidate AHD/W7
thetic adj constituting/beginning with poetic thesis AHD/W7
tick n ticking, pillow- or mattress-case AHD/W7
tubifex n slender reddish oligochaete worms AHD/W7
vivify vb.trans to quicken, animate, endue with life AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: dēd(e) n.fem deed GED
dēma vb to deem, judge ASD
dōm n.masc doom, sentence ASD
dua(n) vb.wk to do GED
Frisian: dæd, diede n deed ASD
dien, dwaen vb to do, make ASD
Dutch: bibliotheek n library TLL
daad n.fem deed ASD
doeming n.fem condemnation ASD
doen vb to do, make ASD
familie n family TLL
verdoen vb to kill, for(e)do ASD
Old Saxon: dād n.fem deed GED
dōm n.masc doom, sentence ASD
dōman, duomian vb to deem, judge ASD
dōn, duon, dōan, duan, duōn vb.anom to do GED/ASD
fardōn vb to for(e)do ASD
Old High German: taska n bag, pouch KDW
tāt n.str.fem deed GED
tōn, tuo(a)n vb.anom to do, make GED/ASD
tuom n/sfx state, condition; -dom W7
tuomen, tuomian vb to deem, judge W7/ASD
wola-tāt n.str.fem merit, kindness, good deed GED
Middle High German: tat n.fem deed ASD
tücmen vb to deem, judge ASD
tuom n.masc/neut doom, sentence ASD
tuon vb to do, make ASD
wē-tāt n.str.fem pain GED
German: addieren vb to add TLL
Apotheke n.fem pharmacy LRC
Apotheker n.masc pharmacist, apothecary LRC
Bibliothek n.fem library TLL
Familie n family TLL
Tasche n pouch, pocket TLL
T(h)at n.fem deed ASD
Theke n.fem bar, sales counter LRC
Thema n.neut theme LRC
thu(e)n, tun vb to do, make ASD
verthun vb to waste, for(e)do ASD
Wohltat n.fem good deed LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: dāð n.fem deed GED
Icelandic: dāð n.fem deed ASD
dōmr n.masc doom ASD
dæma vb to deem, judge ASD
Danish: addere vb to add TLL
bibliotek n library TLL
daad n.masc/fem deed ASD
dom n.masc/fem doom ASD
dömme vb to deem, judge ASD
familie n family TLL
Swedish: addera vb to add TLL
bibliotek n library TLL
dom n.masc doom ASD
döma vb to deem, judge ASD
då n.fem deed ASD
familj n family TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: deds n.fem deed ASD
doms n.masc doom ASD
domyan vb to deem, judge ASD
*ga-deþs n.fem deed GED
wai-dēdja n.fem malefactor ASD
waila-dēds n.fem kindness ASD
Latin: abditus, abdita, abditum adj hidden place LRC
abdomen n.neut abdomen W7
abscondo, abscondere vb to hide away W7
addo, addere vb to add, give W7
aedificium n.neut edifice W7
aedifico, aedificāre vb to build W7
affectio, affectionis n.fem affection, fondness W7
affecto, affectāre vb to pursue, grasp W7
afficio, afficere, affeci, affectus vb to influence W7
amplifico, amplificāre vb to amplify W7
apotheca n.fem storehouse W7
artifactum n artifact CDC
artifex, artificis n.masc craftsman W7
artificium n.neut craftsman's work W7
beatificus adj making happy W7
benefacio, benefacere vb to do a service AHD/CLD
beneficentia n.fem beneficence, good deeds W7
beneficium n.neut favor, benefit W7
beneficus adj generous, liberal, beneficient W7
bibliotheca n.fem library, bookcase W7
calefacio, calefacere vb to warm W7
caleo, calēre vb to be warm W7
condimentum n.neut spice, seasoning, condiment W7
condio, condire vb to pickle, preserve W7
conditus vb.ptc put away in orderly fashion W7
condō, condere, condidī, conditum vb to found, establish LRC
conficio, conficere, confeci, confectus vb to achieve, finish W7
defectus, defectūs n.masc lack, want W7
deficio, deficere, defeci, defectus vb to fail, desert, be lacking W7
difficilis adj difficult, uneasy W7
difficultas n.fem difficulty W7
-do, -dere, -didi, -ditus vb.sfx to put W7
effectus, effectūs n.masc execution, accomplishment W7
efficiens, efficientis vb.pres.ptc efficient W7
efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus vb to bring about W7
epitheton n.neut epithet (Greek word) W7
facienda things to be done AHD
facies n.fem aspect, form, face W7
facilis adj easy W7
facinus, facinoris n.neut crime LRC
faciō, facere, fēcī, factum vb to do, make LRC
facticius adj factitious W7
factio, factionis n.fem faction, act of making LRC
factor n.masc doer W7
factum n.neut an act W7
factura n.fem act of making W7
facultas n.fem ability, abundance W7
familia n.fem family (incl. slaves) W7/CLD
famulus adj/n.masc servile, serving; slave, servant CLD
-farius sfx that does W7
-ficare sfx make, form into W7
-ficus sfx [past passive participle verb ending] W7
inconditus adj incondite, confused, disorderly W7
inficio, inficere, infeci, infectus vb to work in, poison W7
malefacio, malefacere vb to do evil W7
malefactor n.masc evil-doer W7
malefactum vb.ptc evil done W7
modifico, modificare vb to measure, moderate W7
officium n.neut duty, service, office W7
perdō, perdere, perdidī, perditus vb to lose, destroy W7
perficio, perficere, perfeci, perfectus vb to perfect, carry out W7
pontifex, pontificis n.masc pontiff, priest in Roman religion W7
praefectus n.masc prefect W7
praeficio, praeficere, praefeci, praefectus vb to place ahead of W7
profectus, profectūs n.masc profit, advance W7
proficio, proficere, profeci, profectus vb to raise, advance, accomplish W7
putrefacio, putrefacere vb to make to rot W7
rarefacio, rarefacere vb to rarefy W7
recondo, recondere, recondidi, reconditus vb to conceal W7
refectus vb.ptc repaired W7
rubefacio, rubefacere vb to make red W7
sacrificium n.neut sacrifice, offering W7
satisfacio, satisfacere vb to satisfy W7
satisfactio, satisfactionis n.fem reparation, amends W7
scarifo, scarifāre vb to make a scar W7
sufficio, sufficere vb to put under W7
thēca n.fem cover, receptacle W7
thema n.fem theme, subject, topic W7
thesis n.fem thesis, proposition W7
vivificus adj enlivening W7
Vulgar Latin: calfo, calfare vb to warm W7
facia n.fem face W7
Late Latin: aedifico, aedificāre vb to instruct, improve spiritually W7
anathema n anathema AHD
antithesis n.fem contrary, antithesis W7
apothecarius n.masc shopkeeper W7
benefactio, benefactionis n.fem benefaction W7
benefactor n benefactor AHD
epenthesis n.fem insertion of letter in word W7
hypotheca n.fem pledge W7
justifico, justificāre vb to justify W7
mollifico, mollificāre vb to make soft W7
mortifico, mortificāre vb to mortify W7
notifico, notificāre vb to notify W7
nullifico, nullificāre vb to nullify W7
omnifarius adj of all kinds W7
orificium n.neut orifice W7
parenthesis n.fem parenthesis W7
perditio, perditionis n.fem destruction, loss W7
plusquamperfectus n.masc more than perfect, the pluperfect tense W7
prosthesis n.fem prosthesis W7
prothesis n.fem prothesis W7
refectorium n.neut refectory, place to eat W7
sanctifico, sanctificāre vb to sanctify, make holy W7
scarifico, scarificāre vb to make a scar W7
thesis n.fem proposal, act of laying down W7
vivifico, vivificāre vb to vivify W7
Medieval Latin: apothēcārius n apothecary AHD
beneficium n.neut benefice W7
disfaciō, disfacere vb to undo W7
facultas, facultatis n.fem branch of learning or teaching W7
hypothecō, hypothecāre vb to pledge W7
qualifico, qualificare vb to qualify W7
ramifico, ramificare vb to ramify W7
rectifico, rectificare vb to rectify W7
New Latin: apothecium n.neut a spore-breeding structure W7
diathesis n.fem diathesis W7
facies n.masc face, expression W7
factitivus adj factitive W7
ossifico, ossificare vb to ossify W7
perithecium n.neut fruit of various fungi W7
prosthesis n.fem addition of a sound to the beginning of a word W7
spinifex n.masc genus of Australian grasses W7
theca n.fem sac, capsule, spore sac W7
tubifex n.masc genus of worms W7
Portuguese: família n family LRC
fazer vb to make TLL
feitiço adj false, artificial W7
Spanish: afición n liking, affection AHD
aficionar vb to induce liking for AHD
bodega n bodega AHD
faena n faena, manual labor AHD
familia n family LRC
hacer vb to make TLL
hacienda n hacienda, large estate/plantation AHD
hecho n fact TLL
Catalan: feyna n manual labor AHD
Old French: afaire n affair AHD
affection n affection AHD
amplifier vb to amplify AHD
apotecaire n apothecary AHD
artifice n artifice, craftsmanship AHD
benefice n benefice AHD
bienfait n benefit, good deed AHD
botique n boutique, small shop AHD
confire vb to prepare W7
deffaire vb to undo, nullify W7
deffesant vb.pres.ptc undoing, nullifying W7
desconfire, desconfit vb to disappoint W7
desfacier vb to deface W7
escondre vb to hide W7
escons vb.ptc hidden W7
esconse n.fem screened lantern W7
face n.fem face W7
façon n.fem way, manner W7
faire vb to do AHD
-fier sfx -fy, to modify, change into something else W7
office n.masc service, duty, mass W7
parfit adj carried out, perfect W7
sacrifice n.masc sacrifice W7
teme n.masc theme W7
Anglo-French: benfet n.masc benefit, benefaction W7
defesance n.fem rendering null/void W7
Middle French: abdomen n.masc abdomen W7
affaire n.fem affair W7
affecter vb to affect W7
affection n.fem affection W7
amplifier vb to amplify W7
artifice n.masc artifice W7
benefice n.masc benefit; benefice W7
chaufer vb to heat W7
condiment n.masc condiment W7
confire vb to prepare W7
confit n.masc comfit, preparation W7
contrefaire vb to imitate W7
contrefait adj counterfeit W7
defect n.masc fault, defect W7
deffaire, deffait vb to destroy, vanquish W7
desfacier vb to deface, disfigure W7
edifice n.masc edifice, building W7
edifier vb to build W7
effacer vb to erase W7
effect n.masc effect W7
efficient adj efficient W7
esconse n.fem screened lantern W7
face n.fem face, surface W7
facile adj easy W7
facteur n.masc doer, maker W7
-faction sfx -factive W7
faction n.fem faction, group W7
faculté n.fem faculty, ability W7
faire, fais-, fait vb to do, make W7
faisible adj feasible W7
feture n.fem act of making W7
-fique sfx -fic W7
forfaire, forfait vb to forfeit, commit a crime W7
-ifier vb.sfx -ify W7
justifier vb to justify W7
manufacture n.fem handmaking W7
mesfaire vb to do wrong W7
mesfaisance n.fem misfeasance, the act of doing wrong W7
modifier vb to modify W7
mollifier vb to mollify, soften W7
mortifier vb to mortify W7
notifier vb to make known W7
orifice n.masc orifice W7
pétrifier vb to petrify W7
prefect n.masc prefect W7
profit n.masc profit W7
putréfier vb to putrefy W7
qualifier vb to qualify W7
ramifier vb to ramify W7
raréfier vb to rarefy W7
rectifier vb to rectify W7
sanctifier vb to sanctify W7
satisfier vb to satisfy W7
scarifier vb to make a scar W7
suffire, suffis- vb to suffice W7
surfaire, surfait vb to overdo W7
vivifier vb to vivify W7
French: artifice n skill, cunning, artifice CDC
boutique n boutique AHD
fabrique n factory TLL
façade n.fem facade W7
face n.fem face, side W7
facette n.fem.dim facet, little face/side W7
façon n style, fashion TLL
faction n faction TLL
faire vb to do W7
fait n fact TLL
famille n family LRC
fétiche n.masc fetish W7
forge n forge, smithy TLL
salmigondis n.masc confused story, incoherent mix W7
saponifier vb to turn into soap W7
surface n.fem surface W7
Old Provençal: botica n boutique, small shop/storehouse AHD
Italian: confètto, confètti n.masc sweetmeat W7/CID
faccia n.fem face W7
facciata n.fem facade W7
famiglia n family LRC
fare vb to make TLL
fatto n fact TLL
Old Lithuanian: demì vb to lay GED
Lithuanian: dėl prep for, because LRC
dėti vb to lay, put, place GED/RPN
Latvian: dēju vb to lay GED
dèt vb to lay (eggs) LRC
Czech: ději, děju vb to do, make GED
Old Church Slavonic: blagodětь n.fem gift, grace, joy LRC
dělo n.neut work, doing, deed LRC
děti vb to put, place, lay RPN
dějati, dějǫ, děješi vb to do, commit LRC
oděvati, oděvajǫ, oděvaješi vb to clothe LRC
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: θητόν n altar GED
Greek: anathema n.neut thing devoted to evil, curse W7
anatithenai vb to dedicate, set up W7
antithesis n.fem opposition, antithesis W7
antitithenai vb to oppose W7
apothēkē n.fem storehouse W7
apotithenai vb to put away W7
bibliothēkē n.fem library, bookcase W7
diathesis n.fem arrangement W7
diatithenai vb to arrange W7
ἔθη-κα vb.aor I set, placed GED
entithenai vb to put in W7
epenthesis n.fem figure of speech, epenthesis W7
epentithenai vb to insert a letter/thing W7
epitheton n.neut epithet W7
epitithenai, epithetos vb to put on, add W7
thema, thematos n.neut theme, something laid down W7
thematikos adj thematic W7
thesis n.fem downbeat, more important part of foot, act of laying down W7
thetikos adj of a proposition W7
θήκη n.fem case, container GED
thēkion n.neut little case W7
metathesis n.fem metathesis, transposition W7
metatithenai vb to transpose W7
parenthesis n.fem act of inserting W7
parentithenai vb to insert W7
prosthesis n.fem addition W7
prostithenai vb to add to W7
skariphasthai vb to scratch an outline, sketch W7
synthesis n.fem synthesis W7
syntithenai vb to put together W7
τίθημι vb to put, place LRC
hypothesis n.fem hypothesis W7
hypothēkē n.fem pledge W7
hypotithenai vb to put under, suppose, deposit as a pledge W7
Hittite: da-a-i to set, put, place GED/RPN
ti-ya-u-en to put, place RPN
Classical Armenian: dnem vb to set, put, place LRC
Old Persian: adadā vb.impf set, placed GED
dāta- vb.ptc set, placed GED
Avestan: adadā vb to arrange LRC
daðāiti vb to set, lay, place GED
dāta- vb.ptc set, placed GED
Sanskrit: adhām vb.aor I set GED
dádhāti vb to set, lay, put, place GED/RPN
dhākás n container GED
dhāyate n place for self GED
saṁdhi n sound modification conditioned by context, lit. placing together W7
Hindi: parda n screen, veil; seclusion of women from public observation W7
Tocharian B: tes-, tās-, täs-, tätt- vb to set, lay, put, place GED/RPN
Tocharian A: tā(s)-, täs-, tas- vb to set, lay, put, place GED/RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
aor=aorist (tense)
fem=feminine (gender)
impf=imperfect (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
pret=preterite (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)
1=1st person
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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