Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. dhel-, dholo-   'curve; dell, hollow'

Semantic Field(s): Hollow, Concave, Dale, Valley


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: dail n dale ASD
Gaelic: dail n dale ASD
Manx: dayll n.fem dale ASD
Cornish: dol n.fem dale ASD
Welsh: dól n dale ASD
Old English: dæl n.neut dale ASD/W7
Middle English: dale n dale W7
delle n dell W7
English: dale n vale, valley AHD/W7
dalles river rapids between steep gorge/valley precipices AHD
dell n small dale, secluded hollow AHD/W7
Ettendales troll-fells in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Harrowdale prop.n Rohan valley in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Rivendell prop.n elven refuge in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
thalweg n line tracing lowest points in valley/river bed AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: de(i)l n dale ASD
Frisian: dalle, dol n dale ASD
Dutch: dal n.neut dale ASD
Old Saxon: dal n.neut dale ASD
Old High German: tal n.neut dell, valley ASD/W7
Middle High German: tal n.neut dale ASD
telle n ravine W7
German: Thal n.neut dale ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: dalr n.masc dale, dell, valley LRC
Icelandic: dalr n.masc dale ASD
Danish: dal n.masc/fem dale ASD
Swedish: dal n.masc dale ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: dal n.neut dale ASD
dalaþ adv down LRC
Old Church Slavonic: dolu adv down(wards), below LRC
Greek: tholos n.masc/fem rotunda W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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