Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dheig̑h-   'to build, knead clay'

Semantic Field(s): to Build, to Knead


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: digen adj firm, solid LRC
Old English: dǣge n kneader of bread W7
dāg, dāh n dough W7
-dīge n.sfx lady, lit. -kneader W7
hlǣf-dī(g)e n.str.fem lady of house, lit. loaf-kneader GED/ASD
Middle English: deye n dairymaid W7
deyerie n dairy W7
disfiguren vb to disfigure W7
dogh n dough W7
effigie n effigy W7
faint, feint adj faint W7
feignen vb to feign W7
ficcioun n fiction W7
figment n figment W7
figure n figure W7
lady n lady W7
paradis n paradise W7
prefiguren vb to prefigure W7
transfiguren vb to transfigure W7
English: configure vb to make/arrange in certain form/shape/figure AHD/CDC
dairy n place where milk/butter/cheese is kept/made AHD/W7
disfigure vb.trans to spoil appearance of AHD/W7
dough n mixture of flour/other ingredients ready to knead/roll AHD/W7
effigy n image/representation, esp. of person AHD/W7
faineant n irresponsible idler AHD/W7
faint adj cowardly, lacking courage/spirit AHD/W7
feign vb to sham, represent by false appearance AHD/W7
feint n trick, something feigned AHD/W7
fictile adj molded/moldable in earth/clay/other material AHD/W7
fiction n something feigned/invented by imagination AHD/W7
figment n something made up/contrived/fabricated AHD/W7
figure n numeral, number symbol AHD/W7
figurine n small carved/molded figure AHD/W7
lady n mistress, female head of household AHD/W7
paradise n garden of Eden AHD/W7
prefigure vb.trans to show/suggest/announce by antecedent type/image/likeness AHD/W7
teiglach n dough-ball confection AHD
thigmotaxis n stereotaxis AHD/W7
thixotropy n (gel) becoming fluid when stirred/shaken but returning to semisolid state when standing AHD
transfigure vb.trans to metamorphose, change form/appearance of AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: deeg n.neut dough ASD
degel n.str.masc brick GED
Middle Low German: degel n.str.masc brick GED
deger, diger adv completely GED
Old High German: teic adj decayed LRC
teig n.masc dough RPN/ASD
Middle High German: teic n dough ASD
tiger(e) adv completely GED
German: Teig n.masc dough ASD
Yiddish: teyg n dough AHD
teyglekh n teiglach AHD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: deig n dough RPN
digr adj big, stout; thick, deep LRC
Old Icelandic: digr adj big, stout GED
digull n.str.masc brick GED
Icelandic: deig n.neut dough ASD
Norwegian: digen adj fat GED
digna vb.wk to grow/become fat GED
Danish: deig n.masc/fem dough ASD
Swedish: deg n.masc dough ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: daigs n.masc dough RPN/ASD
deigan vb to make dough ASD
*digan vb.str.I to knead, form (from) clay GED/RPN
Oscan: feíhúss walls GED/RPN
Old Latin: figura n figure GED
fīlum n thread GED
Latin: effigies n.fem representation, portrait W7
effingo, effingere vb to form W7
fictilis adj molded of clay W7
fictio, fictionis n.fem act of fashioning, fiction W7
figmentum n.neut molded figure, creation W7
figulus n potter, worker in clay GED/RPN
figūra n.fem form, shape, size, figure RPN
figūro, figūrare vb to shape, fashion W7
fingō, fingere, finxī, fīctus vb to form, shape, fashion GED
transfiguro, transfigurare vb to change figure W7
Late Latin: paradisus n.masc paradise, heaven W7
praefiguro, praefigurāre vb to prefigure W7
New Latin: thigmotaxis n.fem type of taxis W7
Old French: faindre, feindre, feign- vb to shape; to feign, shirk W7
feint vb.ptc feigned W7
feinte n.fem act of feigning W7
figure n.fem shape, allure W7
paradis n.masc heaven W7
Middle French: desfigurer vb to disfigure W7
faignant adj lazy W7
fait-nient n.masc does nothing, by folk etymology W7
feindre, faindre vb to make believe, be lazy W7
fiction n.fem invention W7
figure n.fem face, apparence W7
French: faineant adj lazy, sluggish W7
feinte n.fem act of feigning W7
Lithuanian: díežti vb to whip, beat GED
dýžti vb to whip, beat soundly, knead thoroughly GED/RPN
Latvian: diezêt vb to offer, talk into buying GED
Old Church Slavonic: ziždǫ, zьdati vb to build RPN
zьdъ n wall RPN
Old Russian: dĕža n dough mold, baker's trough LRC
Russian: dežá n baker's trough GED
Ukrainian: d'ižá n baker's trough GED/RPN
Greek: θιγγάνω vb to touch GED
thigma n.neut touch W7
παράδεισος n.masc (enclosed) park, paradise LRC
τεῖχος, τοῖχος n.neut wall GED
Late Greek: παράδεισος n.masc paradise, heaven LRC
Armenian: dēz n heap LRC
dizanem vb to heap, collect, pile up GED/RPN
Old Persian: didā n castle, fortification GED
Persian: diz n fortification GED
Avestan: daēza- n wall (esp. of mud/clay bricks) RPN
daēzayeiti vb.caus to heap, wall about GED
pairi-daēza- n paradise, lit. enclosure GED
Sanskrit: deham, dehas n body GED
dehayati vb to build (a wall) LRC
dehī́ n wall, bank, mound, rampart RPN
déhmi vb to smear, anoint, plaster GED/RPN
Tocharian B: ts(a)ik- vb to form GED
Tocharian A: tsek- vb to form GED
tseke n sculpture, molded figure LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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