Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhem-, dhemə-   'to blow, fly about like dust'

Semantic Field(s): to Blow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: dem adj dim, black RPN
Welsh: dew n fog, gloom, dusk RPN
Old English: dim(m) adj dim RPN
Middle English: dim, dym adj dim CDC
English: damp n fog, moisture, humidity IEW
dank adj damp, moist, humid IEW
dim adj dark, unlit, poorly lit LRC
Dimholt prop.n black grove in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Dimrill prop.n high pass in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Evendim prop.n northern lake in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: dim adj dim CDC
diunk adj dark RPN
Old Saxon: *dim, þim adj dim CDC
dunkar adj dark RPN
Old High German: dampf n steam, mist, smoke RPN
dunkal, tunkal adj dark RPN
timbar, timber, timmer adj dim ASD/CDC
tunchal, tunchar adj dark RPN
Middle High German: timber, timmer adj dim ASD
German: Dampf n.masc damp, mist, steam LRC
dunkel adj dim LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: dimma vb to darken, make dim RPN
dimmr adj dim RPN
døkkva vb to darken, make dim RPN
Icelandic: dimmr adj dim ASD
Danish: damp n damp, steam TLL
Swedish: dimma n fog, mist, haze CDC
dimmig adj dim, foggy CDC
Lithuanian: dangà n cover, roof; garment RPN
dangùs n sky RPN
dengiù, deñgti vb to cover RPN
dingsiù, dingsė́ti vb to be hidden RPN
dumiù, dùmti vb to blow; to smoke RPN
Latvian: danga n mire, morass RPN
Old Church Slavonic: dъmǫ, dǫti vb to blow RPN
Luwian: da-ak-ku-ú-i-iš n dark RPN
Hittite: da-an-ku-e-eš-zi to darken, turn black RPN
da-an-ku-i-iš adj black, dark RPN
da-an-ku-ni-eš-kir made dark, black RPN
Parachi: dhamā́n n wind RPN
Ashkunu: domṍ n wind RPN
Sanskrit: dhámati vb to blow RPN
Prakrit: dhamaṇī̆ n bellows RPN
Hindi: dhaũknā vb to blow, pant, breathe on RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pret=preterite (tense)
sg=singular (number)
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)

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