Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhembh-, dhm̥bh-   'to dig'

Semantic Field(s): to Dig, Delve


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: epitaphe n epitaph W7
English: cenotaph n tomb/monument honoring person buried elsewhere AHD/W7
epitaph n inscription on/at tomb/grave in memory of one buried there AHD/W7
taphonomy n study of fossilization AHD/CDC
Latin: cenotaphium n.neut cenotaph W7
epitaphium n.neut funeral oration W7
Medieval Latin: epitaphium n.neut epitaph W7
Middle French: epitaphe n.fem epitaph W7
French: cénotaphe n.masc cenotaph W7
Greek: epitaphion n.neut epitaph W7
θάπτω vb to bury, provide funeral rites RPN
kenotaphion n.neut cenotaph W7
ταφή n grave, burial, burial-place RPN
τάφος n burying; burial; tomb RPN
Armenian: damban n grave, tomb RPN
dambaran n grave, tomb RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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