Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. dher-, dherə-   'dirt, dreg, some type of deposit'

Semantic Field(s): Dirty, Soiled, Dust, Powder


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: derg adj red RPN
Gaelic: dorch adj dark, black ASD
Old English: dærste n dregs, lees RPN
deorc adj dark W7
dreflian vb to drivel W7
drōs n dregs W7
drōsne n dregs, dirt RPN
Middle English: derk adj dark W7
drabelen vb to drabble W7
dreg n dreg W7
drivelen vb to drivel W7
dros n dross W7
trachea n trachea W7
English: ataractic n tranquilizer drug AHD/W7
dark adj (partially) devoid of light AHD/W7
drab n dull gray/brown cloth AHD/W7
drabble vb to make/become wet/muddy AHD/W7
dreg n lees, sediment contained in/precipitated from liquid AHD/W7
drivel vb to slaver, dribble saliva from mouth AHD/W7
dross n scum formed on surface of molten metal AHD/W7
trachea n main trunk of lung passageway AHD/W7
trachoma n chronic contagious conjunctivitis AHD/W7
trachyte n light-colored volcanic rock AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: tarchannen vb to hide/conceal in dark RPN
trousana, trōsana, truosana n lees, dregs RPN/ASD
Middle High German: truosen n.fem barm, yeast ASD
verterken, vertirken vb to darken RPN
German: Dreck n.masc dirt LRC
Drusen n.fem dregs, sediment ASD
tarni, tarhnjan adj dark ASD
verdrecken vb to get dirty LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: draf n malt dregs W7
dregg n dregs, lees W7
Icelandic: dökkr adj dark ASD
Latin: fracēs n dregs of oil RPN
Late Latin: drappus n.masc cloth W7
Medieval Latin: trachea n.fem throat W7
New Latin: trachoma n.fem a chronic contagious conjunctivitis W7
Middle French: drap n.masc cloth W7
French: trachyte n.masc trachyte, a type of volcanic rock W7
Lithuanian: dargà n dirt, filth RPN
dargùs n dirty, filthy RPN
dérgti vb to become dirty RPN
der̃kti vb to make dirty RPN
Greek: artēria n.fem artery W7
ataraktos adj calm W7
ataraxia n.fem calmness W7
tarassein vb to bother, disturb, trouble W7
ταράσσω vb to trouble LRC
tracheia adj.fem rough W7
τρηχύς adj rough LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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