Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. dher-, dherə-   'to hold, support'

Semantic Field(s): to Hold


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: drong n troop GED
Old English: darian vb to lurk, lie hidden, be concealed IEW
d(i)ernan, dyrnan vb.wk to dern ASD/OED
drēogan, drēag, drugon, drogen vb.str.II to endure, suffer; perform, carry out LRC
drihten, dryhten n.str.masc lord, prince, ruler GED
drȳge adj dry LRC
dryht, driht n.str.fem troop ASD/GED
dyrne, d(i)erne adj/n.neut secret, hidden, obscure ASD
ge-drēag n.str.neut troop GED
indrihten, indryhten adj (very) noble ASD
Middle English: affermen vb to affirm W7
confirmen vb to confirm W7
ferm n firm W7
ferme n rent, lease W7
infirm adj infirm W7
t(h)rone n throne W7
English: affirm vb to confirm, validate AHD/W7
confirm vb.trans to strengthen, make firm(er) AHD/W7
Darius prop.n old Persian Achaemenid king name AHD
dern, darn vb to hide, conceal, keep secret OED
Derndingle prop.n entmoot locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Dernhelm prop.n Eowyn's nom de guerre in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
dharma n law/custom regarded as duty AHD/W7
dharna n fast(ing) at debtor's door AHD/CDC
Drogo prop.n Frodo's father in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
farm n fixed sum payable at fixed intervals AHD/W7
fermata n prolongation of musical note/chord/rest at discretion of performer AHD/W7
firm adj securely/solidly fixed in place AHD/W7
firm n name/style/title by which company conducts business AHD/W7
firmament n heavens, arch/vault of sky AHD/W7
infirm adj re: poor/deteriorated vitality AHD/W7
infirmary n lodging for treatment of sick/infirm AHD/W7
sirdar n person of high rank, esp. in India AHD/W7
tahsildar n revenue officer in India AHD/W7
throne n chair of state of king/prince/bishop AHD/W7
zamindar n district land revenue collector in India AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: dern, dren adj hidden ASD
dracht, drecht n.str.fem troop ASD/GED
drochten n.str.masc lord GED
Frisian: dregte n people, multitude, army ASD
Old Saxon: derni adj secret ASD
dernjan vb to dern OED
drohtīn n.str.masc lord GED
druht-folc n army GED
druht-scepi n authority GED
Old High German: tarnan, tarnen vb to dern OED
tarni adj hidden ASD
tru(h)t n.fem multitude ASD
truhtīn n.str.masc lord GED
Middle High German: truht n.str.fem troop GED
German: Firma n.fem firm, business W7
tarnen vb to dern, disguise LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: drangr n rock peak KNW
draugr n.masc ghost, undead man LRC
drengr n.masc tree trunk; (gallant) fellow; (young) warrior KNW
dróttinn n.masc lord, leader of host LRC
Old Icelandic: drottning n.fem queen GED
drōtt n.str.fem troop GED
drōttinn n.str.masc lord GED
Icelandic: drōtt n.fem people ASD
drōttinn n leader, ruler ASD
Danish: dreng n boy TLL
Swedish: tron n throne TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *drauhtinassus n.masc campaign GED
*drauhtinon vb.wk.II to perform military service GED
drauhti-witoþ n.neut campaign GED
driugan vb to perform military service ASD
ga-drauhts n.masc soldier ASD
Latin: affirmo, affirmare vb to affirm W7
confirmo, confirmare vb to confirm W7
fere adv almost LRC
firmamentum n.neut support W7
firmo, firmare vb to make firm, strengthen W7
firmus adj firm, strong, stout RPN
infirmus adj infirm, weak W7
thronus n.masc throne W7
Late Latin: firmamentum n.neut firmament, sky W7
Old French: afermer vb to affirm AHD
confirmer vb to confirm W7
ferme n.fem lease W7
fermer vb to lease (land) W7
trône n.masc throne W7
Middle French: afermer vb to affirm W7
ferm adj firm W7
firmament n.masc sky W7
Italian: fermare vb to stop W7
fermata n.fem stop, stay, sojourn W7
firma n.fem signature W7
Lithuanian: diržtù, dir̃žti vb to grow hard, become firm RPN
diržùs adj solid, firm RPN
draũgas n companion GED
Old Church Slavonic: drugъ n.masc/adj/pron friend; one; another LRC
družina n troop GED
drъžjǫ, drъžati vb to hold RPN
Greek: ἁθρόος adj together LRC
thronos n.masc throne, chair W7
Old Persian: dar- vb to hold RPN
Dāraya-vahu- prop.n Darius, lit. upholding the good GED
Persian: -dār n holder W7
zamīndār n tax collector W7
Avestan: dar- vb to hold, keep RPN
darz- vb to hold, fasten RPN
dərəzra- adj firm, strong RPN
drva- adj firm, sound RPN
Sanskrit: dṛ́hyati vb to be strong RPN
dharúṇa-ḥ adj holding, supporting RPN
dhartrá-m n support, prop RPN
dharma n conformity to one's duty/nature W7
dhāráyati vb to hold, bear, keep GED/RPN
dhṛ́ti-ḥ n firmness, resolution RPN
Hindi: zamīndār n land tax-collector W7
taḥṣīldār n revenue officer (in India) W7
sardār n person of high rank W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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